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Language Awareness in the Workplace

Mustafa Wshyar Abdullah AL-Ahmedi

Lecturer at Koya University – Koya, Erbil/ Iraq

EdupediaPublications

Abstract:

 

This article is exploring the use of language by the individuals of a group who are active members of a team. Real examples are given to further investigate the language awareness in real life communications.

 

Key Words: Language, Awareness, Workplace, Team, Individuals

 

  1. Introduction

 

Working in a team can enhance a great experience for a participant in a group work. The enhancements can be new information, the way of dealing with subject matters, and communication with people who may have different ideas. Those features are mostly very important to be existed in a person who looks for a good employment opportunity. It is a reality that most employers try to employ someone with those and some other characteristics like a good command in using technology. Integrating to a work environment is significant for an employee to perform an acceptable performance. To be a successful person in a workplace, being aware of cross cultural and different types of community of practice has its significance.

As a part of Language Awareness in the Workplace, the students had to work in one of the projects which were offered to participate. One of them was “Wish upon a Star” and the other one was “Equality and Diversity at UCLan”. All the students decided to go with the first one because the majority desired to take part in it and the minority of students did not like the idea of creating a small group. “Wish upon a Star” is a project which leads to publishing a book about star and constellation stories for children. The aim of the book is to provide the readers, who are supposed generally to be children, with constellation and star beliefs in India and the UK. The master students in English Language and Literature were requested to contribute some cultural facts and beliefs about sky issues to the content of the book.

The preparation for the project started in early December 2011 and the book is expected to be published around July 2012. This report is written to show what were done to contribute to the project and the way which steps were taken. It explores the writer’s, who was a group member, weaknesses and strengths which are very important to be discovered for improvement. The benefits will also be mentioned as the most participants could obtain new skills or at least improving the existed ones.

 

  1. Community of Practice

 

  • An Introduction to Community of Practice

 

The term community of practice (CofP) is frequently mentioned in the modern world, especially when individuals exist in a group form to take a responsibility. Lave and Wenger (1991: 98) define the term: “A community of practice is a set of relations among persons, activity, and world, over time and in relation with other tangential and overlapping communities of practice.” That is to say, communities of practice are groups of codes which understood and used by the same members of a group. In other words, communities of practice are the ways of communication among the members of a group to achieve the common aims.

Hardcastle and Powers (2004) see community of practice as an application to practice skills to make communication in community groups, organizations or institutions. The relation among individuals is based on the community practice. In other words, it is a community of practice which arranges an acceptable relationship among members of a group. The members can communicate with each other through some common communication rules which are known by all the other members as they are familiar with the community they gathered in.

Communities of practice are everywhere; human beings belong to several communities of practice in different time and places: at home, work, school, or in hobbies (Wenger, 1998). It can be said that a community of practice can be found in all aspects of life and it is the main tool of communicators. It is a tool which helps human beings to communicate and share ideas. They can understand each other through it and they can express themselves easily. As a result of this argument, community of practice involves in all forms of communication or it is the basic and it’s the way which makes communication.  Wenger (1998: 84) claims that there are three dimensions of a community of practice which are: mutual engagement, joint enterprise and shared repertoire. To understand these dimensions, looking at an example can be helpful before defining them. A large company which consists of many departments can be a good sample to give the reader a clear overview about the dimensions. The managers of departments can altogether engage in a group meeting which is arranged for all of them to discuss the goals of the company and they mutually engage. They may have a joint enterprise from discussing the achievements among themselves. The managers can also have shared repertoires by exchanging stories of achievements and other events.

 

  • Mutual Engagement

This is a regular interaction which people in pairs or groups discuss general issues (Holmes and Meyerhoff, 1999). This type is very simple which usually does not need arguments or debates. It is general discussions and it is the basis of relations. It can be said this one is used when the members have a shared goal and they all work to achieve it. As a result, the members communicate through this type of CofP because the target is the same. The communication can be while drinking a coffee or small meetings.

  • Joint Enterprise

It is more than a shared goal and needs process; complex relationships are involved in this dimension (Wenger, 1998). Members usually debate and have more serious meetings for longer hours.

 

  • Shared Repertoire

This dimension is the most complex one which linguistic resources involve in and The meetings are more serious in which gestures, pictures and regular meals become a part of the CofP (Holmes and Meyerhoff, 1999). The members of a group negotiate the meaning which shows disagreement sometimes.

 

  • Community of Practice of the MA English Language and Literature team

The group consisted of different people from different cultural and educational backgrounds. There was a main goal which was a contribution to publish a book and all the members worked for the same aim. It is worth mentioning that there was a main group in which sub groups involved in. My course mates and two of the tutors were members in a subgroup. This sub group mainly arranged meetings for its members and attended once the general meeting of the whole group. The whole group, which was the main one, included MA English Language and Literature team, MA Publishing Team and MA Creative Writing for Children Team.

The common goal of the main group and subgroups was the same which was preparing the content for the book. Each group and individual had different duties; the duties were divided among the subgroups through their educational backgrounds. My group was supposed to carry out a research and collect data related to cultural beliefs as our educational background relates to language, culture and literature. Our part was exploring the beliefs in India and the UK about constellations and stars. Two members of the group had an Indian background and two members were British who were familiar with the beliefs in the UK. The other three members had no background about both countries and they tried to help those members to collect data and find information about both cultures.

Regarding the power, all the members were equal in terms of controlling or managing the project. None of the members in the whole group including supervisors were more powerful. All the ideas were discussed and they were arranged to create a good content to the project. In brief, all the members decided on the content of the project and there was not anyone to have a final decision as the group generally decided on the final decision.

 

  1. Discursive Chosen Community of Practice

Discursive means everyday talk and it is a multi-utterance of talk; in order to analyze a conversation, meeting or talk, discursive should be analyzed (Tracy, 2002). Tracy (2002) argues that a talk is called discursive practice rather than a talk because it leads us to recognize the talk not like just a single thing, but to see it like an activity which has different parts. To interpret a talk, all the aspects like culture, speakers’ power status, politeness/ impoliteness and the others should be analyzed. After considering all these aspects, the exact meaning behind that speech might be explored and understood. As a result, it can be said that discursive practices are mainly used in conversation analysis to see how a conversation is conversed to show how successful it is.

The language of communication for the MA English Language and Literature team was English as nobody could talk the first language of some other participants. Some of the members of the team had different accents but it did not affect the communication. All members’ speech tone was fine and it was always stayed at an average level which was considered polite. All the members of the team started studying in the same course since September 2011 and continued till late May 2012, but still some members of the group sometimes confused some other members’ names or even they did not know. This case shows that there was a lack of communication among some of the members and they did not have tight relations with each other. If the confusion or not knowing the names does really prove this, that means the relation among members of the team had to be tighter to enhance higher achievements.

In terms of the practices of the MA English Language and Literature team, it can be said that power was essentially equal as all the members worked all together. The decisions were taken through evaluating all the individual ideas and the ones, which were believed to be the best, were chosen. Generally speaking, the power did not have an important role as a community of practice in the group. The tutors who worked with us did not have a power of leading the project to any direction which they might desire. Their role was to guide us and answering our questions about the project to do our part very well as all student members were new for such a research and project.

The practices like jocular and politeness were very common. There were many different ideas about the project and all the participants tried to show their thoughts to be admitted by other members. All the discussions were done in a very polite and friendly environment. To the best of my knowledge, cultural differences never made a problem. The obstacles or problems were solved through jokes and indirectly without harming any member. For example, a member of the group had always a problem with time managment; the member usually arrived to the meetings late. Other members did not react or sometimes I used jokes as a reaction, like telling that the member was supposed to arrive later and the moment was taken humorously. I personally tried to solve all the problems without making any trouble for the team. As it has been mentioned, the late arrivals or not attending was the biggest issue for the team. In such cases, other members volunteered to do the job which was considered to be done by someone else. In spite of this, those members who had such problems were encouraged to participate the meetings and to share towards the project.

Collectivism and individualism had their influence on the members but they did not change the direction of the activities. The members of the team were divided equally on both these cultural backgrounds. The members who came from collectivistic cultures desired to arrange more meetings, while people from individualistic cultures did not mind and they thought the discussions could be done by using Facebook and emails. A member who was from a collectivist culture was not very happy as we did not have as many meetings as that member preferred to have. In spite of this concern, all other members including others from collectivist cultures were quite happy about the progress of the project. High context and low context was another difference like collectivism and individualism, but I never felt about its existence. All the members were very friendly and as it had been mentioned earlier, the power was equal which did not make any difference among us to recognize this matter.

 

  1. Employability Outcomes

 

The project was an opportunity for me to improve the skills which directly relate to my future employment. Communication skills were among the most important ones that I needed. In my undergraduate study, I did not have any group works; though, this project was the first one in my life which I became a group member to carry out a research. Communicating with people from different academic level and nationalities made me more communicable. This is a very important feature for a person to have it while seeking an employment opportunity. After the period of the project and communicating to the members of the group, now I am more confident in terms of contacting other people. The key point here is confidence because it can be increased through practicing the skills in real workplaces.  To be honest, I was not very confident in my communication in the past, but now a serious improvement can be seen. This improved skill is a significant outcome of working on the project. It can definitely be said that I will communicate easier in the future and it is a very important feature to have to be more employable.

Time management is another issue which I see as an employability outcome of this project. I usually had been good at managing my time, but when started this project, the skill needed improvements. During the work of the project, many weaknesses could be found about the time management skills. Through consulting other members and external sources, some of the negative points were changed to positives. This point is very important for my future employment and career because success can be the result of good time management. I was provided with very useful leaflets and sources by the tutors about this issue. After reading them, I found that I had to manage my time better as it was not great. Now, my time is managed better and I can have more activities as the least amount of time is spent carelessly or without a plan. I have many goals that I work hard to achieve them. My main targets are obtaining higher degrees and learning more to have a better employment opportunity. Trying to reach all the achievements need a good plan which requires managing time very well. This skill can have a main role in my future employability.

The dream employment for me is working in a group which consists of people from different cultures and nations. Such an employment essentials cross cultural skills, that is to say, someone with a good knowledge of different cultural aspects. The group of people which involved in the project was quite diverse. I worked with people who had different ideas and attitudes. It was a good introduction for me to learn some basics of dealing with people who may think differently especially with different customs. It does not look like having a conversation with someone who the same culture is shared with. In this sense, communicators should be more careful to avoid misunderstanding. After communication with all the members of the team, my cross cultural information increased significantly.

We had many meetings to discuss the project; a great number of people from different courses and positions attended to the meetings. In the meetings, I usually could improve my leadership skills as I always tried to participate and contribute something to the meetings. It can be said that being active in a group can enhance leadership skills because usually active people become leaders. Problem solving was another issue which I could recognize it from myself; I could solve some of the problems in a few meetings. While my leadership and problem solving skills were improving, my self-confidence increased significantly. As people relied on me sometimes and they wanted me to speak at the meetings, I became more confident in communicating with other people. This helped me to recommend solutions and new ideas with less hesitation.

Using technology to enhance a group aim was another new thing for me. Facebook was generally used to update group members about the recent changes of the project and sometimes, the ideas were discussed there. We had two Facebook groups: one of them was shared between students of my course and MA publishing students, the other one was dedicated to the students of my course. The second one was not very active as we usually preferred face to face communication, but I usually became an active member of the first group. I used the group to update MA publishing students about our works. It was proven to me that a space on a social network can be very useful for a group to work on a project. People from a work place can have such a group to discuss issues and problems about their job or they can easily ask questions and search for the answers there.

Team work was very new for me and I found that it is more beneficial than doing a type of work individually. It could be seen that a team work was more successful than a work of an individual. In the project, I realized that to get great achievements for a group, a shared aim of the team is very important. That is to say, all the members of a group should work to achieve a target and the group achievements should be more important than individual attainments.

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English Language: A Global Medium of Literal, Technical and Professional Communication

    DHRUV SHANKAR

                          (Ex-Lecturer)

                               Department of Applied Science and Humanities

     Naraina College of Engineering and Technology & Krishna Institute of Technology,

                                         Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh, India

EdupediaPublications

                              

Abstract: English is a Germanic language which has its multidimensional roots sprouting and blossoming with communicative fruits. Broadly speaking, it would be difficult to thrive in the modernistic mechanism of this world without adopting the knowledge of English as it is an international language spoken and written in most of the countries both as a native and as a second language. Moreover, it has a remarkable impression of sharing different literatures, techniques and professional facilities prevalent and predominant in various nations. In the prevailing scenario of the 21st century, English language has been a lingua franca of the whole developing world that is passing through a tunnel of spherical amelioration. As a matter of fact, English has achieved the status of the root language through which the process of worldwide communication whether it is concerned with business, medicine, transport, technology, trade, culture, literature or marketing is carried out successfully. In the existing circumstances, it is the master key to unlock or analyse socio-cultural, literal, technical and professional conceptions of both national and international growth. So far as the matter is concerned, the revolutionary impact of modernization as well as westernization is spreading all over the world under the shade of a triangular umbrella of three-dimensional communication ‒ literal, technical and professional. Thus, this paper, fundamentally, focuses on the specific characteristics of English language that is, nowadays, a dominating and fascinating medium of literal, technical and professional communication.

Keywords: English, communication, literal, technical, professional and global etc.

Introduction: The term ‘English’ is derived from the surname ‘Angle’, the name of a Germanic tribe which is thought to be originated from the Angeln area of Jutland, a part of northern Germany. In fact, Germanic people invaded Britain and settled there in the fifth century A.D., and, thus, Britain became the main originating source of English language. Shorter Oxford English Dictionary defines the term ‘English’ as ‘the language spoken by the Germanic invaders of Britain in the 5th cent. A. D. Now, the language descended from this, used in Britain, Ireland, Australia, New Zealand, the U.S., Canada, and many other countries.’1 Similarly, Webster’s Encyclopedic Unabridged Dictionary of the English Language specifies the term ‘English’ as ‘the Germanic language of the British Isles, widespread and standard also in the U.S. and most of the British Commonwealth, historically termed Old English (c 450–c 1150), Middle English (c 1150–c 1475), and Modern English (after c 1475)’.2

By the time the Germanic tribes had settled down in Britain, the land included Scotland, which had hitherto been unknown as a region. Britain thus became a land that accommodated the Scots from Ireland, the Britons concentrating in Wales and the Germans in its southern part. The Angles, Saxons and Jutes soon had accepted a common name for their identity and came to be known as Angles which term came to fix as English, after transformation into Engles and Englese. The southern land became almost their property and was called Angles land which became Engles land, and Engle land and England at last. Their dialects namely Jutic, Saxon and Angles respectively were called by a common name Angles which became English because of the interrelatedness of the dialects.3

Nowadays, English is striving to achieve the status of the most popular language of the world. It passes through multi-dimensional routes sprinkling almost all significant tracts of human offshoots. In the present circumstances, it is not easy to make the stem of human race stronger and longer without the watering of English language. In some countries, it is spoken and written as a native language and in many others as a second language. Moreover, it has an observable impact of dealing with different literary features, technical properties and prevailing professionals which are efficacious in the existing scenario of the 21st century. As a matter of fact, English language is nothing but a lingua-franca of the whole globe developing under the impression of versatile betterment. The process of communication whether it is related to any profession, transportation, medication, science, technology, culture or literary structure is executed successfully with the assistance of English language. More or less, it has all the functional properties of a master key that can open or analyse all the literary, technical and professional aspects of human development. Consequently, it has got the credit of an international language.

English has rather grown enormously during the last few decades because of many scientific inventions. The gramophone, the telephone, the wireless and the tape-recording machine have, to some extent, done for the spoken language what printing did for the written. It is often said that the popularity of broadcasting is leading to an extension of the use of Standard English and a decline in the use of dialect. Because of its inventiveness, territorial expansion, numerical strength of speakers, immense power and influence, richness of vocabulary and expressiveness, and lastly, its fitness for purposes of trade, travel, modernity and culture, its Spanish, Italian, German and although new rivals, such as Russian, Chinese and Hindustani have appeared, they are still in no position to challenge the supremacy of English. 4

In point of fact, English is the most useful and fruitful language in the world. In addition, it has its deep roots in each and every part of the colonial construction which was erected by the Britishers. With the enlargement of British sovereignty, it stepped into India, Africa, South Asia, Australia, New Zealand, America and many other countries with the marks of indelible impression. In the earlier stages, it came to these countries as a language of trade and commerce, traffic and traverse, and exploration and expedition, but, with the passage of time, it became the sole medium of instruction in most of the countries. Nowadays, it has become the official language of the international affairs such as business, air-traffic, shipping, United Nations Diplomacy, world banking, academic research, space travel, worldwide networking and all other disciplines of science and technology.

Undoubtedly, the modernistic world is stepping forward with the advancement of science and technology. It is the role of English language through which scientific and technical inventions of England, America, Germany, France and Russia are brought into the territories of India. Moreover, the modern system of education has intensified the role of English language at the international level because the most famous universities of the world utilize English as the medium of instruction, transmission and communication.

Importance of English Language in Literal Communication: When the process of communication is carried out literally, textually or verbally, literal communication takes place. Indeed, literal communication whether it is concerned with the form of oral or written communication is the basis of conversational, translational and professional transmission between two poles or parties. There are thousands of languages spoken in the world, and none can be able to adopt the knowledge of so many languages; therefore, the utilization of English is needed extensively. In reality, English is the bridge-language that can cover the gap between two different language speakers. It may be used as a common language between two distant speakers though their native or regional languages may be different.

          As a matter of fact, the whole world is just like a theatrical stage on which dramatic play of human beings through the medium of literal communication is being showed. So far as the matter is concerned, literal communication plays a dominant role in both human movement and improvement because the existence of human life cannot take place without the exchange of ideas, facts, money and goods; and it is the function of literal communication which carries out all these activities. In a local area, a native or regional language is used to execute this process, but, when the process of communication is carried out at the national or international level, literal communication through English medium is required unanimously.

Significance of English Language in Technical Communication: With the technocratic revolution prevailing in the globular stratum, the significance of English language has become stronger. The technological platform of the world refers to the international market that transfers technological concepts and outlets from one country to the other one through the medium of English language. Since the international market has been more radiative, competitive and aggressive, the importance of English language goes on augmenting. More or less, English language is having a profound influence on the multidimensional features of technical communication, and there is a pressing requirement of English communication which may generate fruitful foundation of universal unification.

Technical communication is a special stalk of general communication and there is no fundamental fluctuation between the two. Shorter Oxford English Dictionary specifies the term ‘technical’ as ‘pertaining to, involving, or characteristic of a particular art, science, profession, or occupation, or the applied arts and sciences generally’.5 Moreover, it is ‘pertaining to or connected with the mechanical or industrial arts and the applied sciences’.6 In this way, it is explicit that the technical communication is the sort of communication in which scientific and technical contents are transferred from pillar to post. Simply stated, technical communication is the transmittance of scientific and technical tenors from one person to another. In this connexion, M. Ashraf Rizvi rightly comments:

“Technical communication is the transmission of scientific and technical information from one individual or group to another, and it includes all the methods, means and media, channels, networks and systems of communication used for the exchange of the information…. In other words, technical communication is a multi-dimensional, dynamic and interactive process that involves the effective transmission of facts, ideas, thoughts, and a systematic understanding of scientific and technical subjects.”7

Broadly speaking, there are three dominant components on which the worldwide movement of human development is founded. The first component is the stream of science; the second one is the gleam of technology; and the third one is the dream of English language. Science provides new inventions to human race, technology offers new techniques to human face while English language is the medium through which useful and profitable knowledge of advancement is transferred immediately from one part of the globe to the other one. As a result, it can be inferred that the real human preferment is based on a triangular shape which is made up of science, technology and English language. In this reference, S. C. Mundhra’s thematic analysis is quite revealing:

“Ours is the age of science and technology, with a small portion of time allowed as leisure. So English will have to make itself more scientific, precise and brief…. Let us remain content with the present English speech and wish for the dawn of a better future. Let us also hope that the flourishing societies, like the Philological Society, the English Place-Name Society, the linguistic Society of America, and the Society for pure English will be able to brave the weather arising from time to time on the horizon of English and steer it through without failing.” 8

Dominance of English Language in Professional Communication: One may be called professional if he is ‘engaged in a specified occupation or activity for money or as a means of earning a living, rather than as a pastime’.9 In this way, professional communication is the stream of communication in which exchange of ideas pertaining to any profession or occupation is done illustriously. Indeed, the term ‘technical’ is concerned with any branch of science and technology whereas the word ‘professional’ is a wider term and relates us to the any branch of science, technology, commerce, trade and business. If any profession is carried out at a large scale, English language is needed as the whole world has thousands of native, regional and local languages which cannot be learnt simultaneously for the communicative purpose. In this case, English plays the role of a mediator between two distant communicators or transmitters. As a whole, English is rather a professional language as it is used in most of the domestic and nationalistic occupations. Moreover, it is the main communicable language of the international transportation.

Conclusion: English is the only language that has the capacity to link one country with the other one. Besides, it is the language that is able to unite the human beings at the international level. We can talk to the persons of the U.K., the U.S.A., Canada, Australia, New Zealand, and many other countries if we are expert in the stream of English. In the existing world, it is the most dynamic language that can be used as a means of communication for any purpose. It is rather a multidimensional traffic-platform on which the vehicles of human development are running smoothly. Indeed, it has got the momentum of circulation in most of the universities, colleges, schools, Courts and many other official departments which are playing a prominent role in the field of literal, technical and professional advancement. Taking into consideration the aims of English language, S. C. Mundhra rightly states:

“The general aims of learning English have been three: English being a world-language promotes international understanding; it is a medium to come into contact with the best in cultural terms, that is, a medium for the study of arts and science; and lastly, it furthers our vocational or professional interests, like law, medicine, engineering and technology.”10

In these days of globalization, it is explicit that English has become the universal language for literal, technical and professional communication. In spite of numerous cultural and traditional movements in support of vernacular languages, it has been growing and developing without any obstruction for the ages. In order to be successful in the global market, one must be proficient in the communicative skills of English language ‒ Speaking, Listening, Reading and Writing. In the concluding scenario, H. S. Bhatia’s analytical observation is noticeable:

“The knowledge of English is also essential for understanding the modern science, trade, commerce, technological and industrial languages. In Information Technology, all computer language is based on English, though there might have been some influence thereon of several other languages also in various ways.”11

In fact, the whole world is nothing but a market place where exchange of concepts, techniques and things is done unintermittedly. This interchange of goods cannot be done without active participation of English language. Undoubtedly, it is a living and vibrant language which has conquered all the worldly languages with its popularity, beauty and importance. It has held the potential performance in any sort of communication whether it is literal or techno-professional. In addition, it has sowed the communicational seeds of aroma which are about to flourish into the form of global modernization with lingual unification. However, it is the youngest of all the languages of the world, it has been the leader of all the languages. Admittedly, the revolutionary impression of global evolution is extending everywhere under the umbrage of a triangular umbrella of tri-dimensional communication ‒ literal, technical and professional. Finally, it is right to argue that we cannot communicate literally, technically and professionally without the knowledge of English language if we want to impart something globally.

                                                        References  

  1. Lesley Brown, et al., Shorter Oxford English Dictionary, 6th ed. (New York: Oxford University Press, 2007), p. 834.
  2. Webster’s Encyclopedic Unabridged Dictionary (U.S.A.: RHR Press, 2001), p. 645.
  3. R. Venkataraman, A History of the English Language (New Delhi: Rama Brothers India Pvt. Ltd., 2012), p. 8.
  4. C. Mundhra, A Handbook of Literature in English for Competitive Examinations (Bareilly: Prakash Book Depot, 2009), p. 403.
  5. Lesley Brown, et al., Shorter Oxford English Dictionary, 6th ed. (New York: Oxford University Press, 2007), p. 3194.
  6. Webster’s Encyclopedic Unabridged Dictionary (U.S.A.: RHR Press, 2001), p. 1950.
  7. Ashraf Rizvi, Professional Communication (New Delhi: Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Company Ltd., 2007), p. 3.
  8. C. Mundhra, A Handbook of Literature in English for Competitive Examinations (Bareilly: Prakash Book Depot, 2009), p. 405.
  9. Lesley Brown, et al., Shorter Oxford English Dictionary, 6th ed. (New York: Oxford University Press, 2007), p. 2360.
  10. C. Mundhra, A Handbook of Literature in English for Competitive Examinations (Bareilly: Prakash Book Depot, 2009), p. 406.
  11. S. Bhatia, English Literature (New Delhi: Ramesh Publishing House, 2009), p. 613.

Notification: Dr. Dhruv Shankar presented this paper in 10th International & 46th National Annual ELTAI Conference entitled Learning and Teaching English in India: Setting Standards at Raj Kumar Goel Institute of Technology for Women, Ghaziabad on 10th July, 2015.

AUTHOR PROFILE: Dr. Dhruv Shankar (b. 1976) has carried out his higher education ‒ B.A. (English Language & Literature), M.A.(English), B.Ed. and Ph.D. ‒ from C.S.J.M. University, Kanpur and collected the teaching experience of grammatical, literary and communicative English from S.M.L.K.S.D. Inter College, Naraina College of Engineering & Technology and Krishna Institute of Technology, Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh. As a matter of fact, he has got the credit of numerous research articles, four poems and two short stories published in prestigious national and international journals. Moreover, he has contributed, participated and presented papers in many national seminars and international conferenc

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How to Get Best Web Hosting Services?

Are you getting ready to move your website to a new host, or want to launch a brand new site? Choosing a web host can be a tricky process, mainly because there are so many companies offering cheap or free hosting. While it’s tempting to just sign up for a free host, there are a lot of factors to keep in mind, and you’ll often find that a paid host is much more beneficial in the long run. See Step 1 below to learn how to pick the best web hosting service for you.

Creating and Enhancing a Website


===Determining Your Needs for Webhosting===

#Look at your current website (or website idea). What does your website do? Is it a site that you made for fun to practice or share with friends and family? Is it your blog or other personal site? Is it a company site? Is it a store? The answers to all of these questions will help you determine what you need to look for in a web host.

#*If you’re only making a site to practice or share with friends and family, you can probably get away with free hosting. It will be slow and there may be ads placed on it, but you will be able to practice working with web servers.
#Think about your potential growth. Is your business expanding rapidly? Are gaining new customers by the day? Do you foresee a significant increase in visitors? There’s a good chance that what works for you now will need to be scaled up in the near future. When choosing a web host, always try to keep the future in mind and plan accordingly.

#*Free hosting sites often make it difficult to transfer your site to a new host when you decide to switch.
#Understand the three main types of hosting. There are three general types of servers offered by web hosting companies: Shared servers, virtual servers, and dedicated servers.
#*If your website is on a shared server, it will share server resources with other websites on the same server. This is often the most affordable solution, but can lead to the worst performance if other sites are hogging your resources. These are generally not recommended if you are trying to run an eCommerce site.
#*Virtual servers are virtual dedicated servers, and can provide a lot more stability and greater resources. These are highly recommended for small businesses that run an eCommerce store or have a decent number of monthly visitors.
#*Dedicated servers are entire physical servers dedicated to just your website. These are typically used for corporate websites or small businesses that do a lot of business or have very high traffic. Dedicated servers are the most expensive option, but have the least downtime and most resources.

===Checking Customer Service of Web Hosting===

#Explore the support options. Customer service is one of the most important factors in choosing a web host, because down-time and technical issues can really impact your visitors. Check the support section of each host to see what kind of customer service options they provide.
#*Being able to talk to someone live is one of the best methods of service. Email support with quick turnaround (24 hours), is another good method.
#*If the only support the host offers is a support forum, keep looking. You are likely to go days without receiving a response to your support request.
#Test the response time. If there is a support forum or support email address, send a test message or two to see how the response times are, ask questions about the service, or the process for getting your site onto the server. The way they treat a potential customer will give a good measure for how they’ll respond once you are a customer.
#Read reviews on the company’s service. There are a variety of places online where people can post reviews about web hosting services. Check some of the more recent reviews for the company to see if people have had issues with customer service and support.
#*Be cautious – many web hosting review websites are operated by the hosting companies themselves, or people wanting to make a quick buck off of referrals. Always read the fine print, and ask someone you know who has experience working with web hosts who they prefer.
#*You may find reviews on the company’s forums, but these could be curated by the company, with bad reviews getting deleted.

===Comparing Features of Webhosting Services===

#Check how much storage the host provides. Storage is the amount of space your website is given for all of its content. This includes your web pages, images, videos, databases, and anything else. If your website is not content-heavy, you likely will not need much space. The typical website is less than 100 MB in size, so you can usually ignore the claims of massive storage.
#*Lots of hosting companies will claim that you have unlimited space, but this is rarely necessary unless you are creating an incredibly content-rich website. In fact, this claim should be a red flag – unlimited space is a technical impossibility, and it could potentially mean that their servers may become overcrowded, thus decreasing server performance.
#*Give yourself room to grow. Make sure that you have room to expand and grow on the host you choose. It is recommended that you at least have the space to grow 20% within a year, so examine your needs and the storage solutions offered by the host. Some services will offer you more space as your needs expand.
#Compare bandwidth amounts between hosts. The bandwidth is the amount of data that is allowed to be transferred from your server to a visitor. Some services will offer unlimited bandwidth, while others will put a cap on the amount that you can transfer.
#*The amount of bandwidth you use will be determined by the amount of traffic you receive as well as the size of the content on your host. For example, a heavily-visited site with lots of pictures will take a lot more bandwidth than a heavily-visited site with mostly text.
#*”Unlimited bandwidth” is rarely actually unlimited, and the trade-offs for services like these are often very noticeable. These hosts will typically be much slower than a host that applies bandwidth limits.
#*Make sure you know what will happen if you go over your bandwidth allotment. Depending on the hosting company, you may be charged extra or your website may be taken offline until the next billing period.
#Test the connection speed. The time it takes for the server to respond can make or break your website. The speed of the server often goes hand-in-hand with the bandwidth limits. If a server offers unlimited bandwidth, it will often put as many websites on the same server as possible, which can severely impact the speed. Find a few sites that are hosted by the company and test how long it takes pages to load.
#*Many hosting companies will show some of the more popular websites that they host as a means of advertisement. Use these to test the speed, but also know that this is not completely indicative of the speed your site will have.
#*You can  to see how long it takes for packets to be sent and received from the server. This can give you a good idea about how quick the server is.
#Pay attention to uptime claims. Uptime is especially important for websites, especially if the website is business-related. Customers expect the service to be available 24/7. Many hosts will claim 99% or more, but be wary of any host that claims 100% uptime.
#*The difference between 99% and 99.9% is three days out of the year. This is a very significant difference, as three days of down-time could cost you a lot of business.
#Make sure the host provides the services you need. Ensure that the web host you choose has the tools and services that you need to best manage your site. This includes cPanel, WordPress or other blog integration, FTP access, analytics, and a variety of other back-end tools.
#*Check to ensure that the host allows you to configure an email address using the domain name that you register.
#Confirm that the host offers acceptable security tools. The security of your web host is especially important if your are dealing with eCommerce and other forms of customer and user information.
#Check what operating system the server is using. The industry standard is Linux, but if you are running a business that uses custom tools written with Microsoft .NET, you’ll want to make sure you use a Windows server for greater compatibility.
#*For most people setting up their website for the first time, the operating system is largely irrelevant.
#*Windows Servers can be less secure than Linux servers.

===Thinking About Cost of Webhosting Services===

#Know the limits of free hosting. There are many companies that offer free web hosting, but the services offered are often severely limiting. Sites on free hosts will usually have ads on them that cannot be removed, and you typically can’t set up ads for yourself.
#*Free hosts are often much slower than a paid host. The benefits you gain for paying monthly will usually far outweigh the cost.
#Balance cost against features. When comparing paid packages, pay attention to the cost of additional features that you may not use. Web hosts love to bundle all kinds of services and products with their expensive packages, but they are usually only useful in very specific situations. Make sure that you’re paying for reliability and customer service, and not useless add-ons.
#Know that good customer support often costs more. Customer service is one of the most crucial aspects when making your web hosting decision, but keep in mind that good customer service does not come cheap. When you’re choosing among low-cost providers, the chances are that the customer service will not be stellar.
#Avoid buying your domain name from your host. Most web hosting services offer to take care of your domain name registration for an extra fee. You can almost always find the domain for cheaper through . Save your money.

== Tips for Webhosting Service ==

*There are a wide variety of websites that present comparisons of web hosting services. These can be helpful if you don’t want to spend so much time conducting these comparisons yourself.
*Look closely at how your guarantee is defined and if your host will honor it. Most guarantees are prorated and are often worthless.
*Check out how legit the web hosting company is by doing a WHOIS on their domain name. Also look for the creation date of the domain name. If the domain name was created less then a year ago, it’s more of a risk to join that hosting company.
*Look at renewal price, which is different from promotional price.
*Price should be the last thing you consider when it comes to finding a web host. Like most other things, you get what you pay for. Free or incredibly cheap will often have far more drawbacks than they’re worth. On the flip side, the most expensive hosts are not usually worth the cost either.
*Read carefully the Terms of Service (TOS).

== Warnings Webhosting Service ==

*Don’t believe fake review sites, anything that says top 10 is a flag for a possible affiliate program masked as a review site.
*Hosting companies that offer unlimited disk space and data transfer for shared hosting accounts will restrict the amount of memory (RAM) and processor (CPU) you can use. If you can’t get a hard number for how much memory or CPU you are entitled to, be prepared for unpleasant surprises.
*Think twice about web hosts with a more competitive yearly rate, forcing you to pay for a year up front. If you have paid yearly and are dissatisfied with their service, you are less likely to swap. It’s always best to only pay monthly!
*Be wary of hosts that include a free domain name with their hosting package unless you are certain they will be putting your information in the WHOIS. Whoever has their information in the WHOIS is the owner, not the one who paid for it.
*Don’t believe unlimited offers, these are dishonest hosts that will say anything to try to real you in.
*Be sure to check the domain age of the company and search for their reviews. Avoid to go with new company without reputation, even if their offer is fancy.

== Related Tips ==
*[[Make a Website]]
*[[Buy a Cheap Domain Name]]
*[[Start a Website Business]]
*[[Find Cheap Web Hosting]]
*[[Choose the Best Hosting Service for Any Business]]

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SPECIAL ISSUE ON 400TH DEATH ANNIVERSARY OF WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE (FREE PUBLICATION)

Special Issue on 400th Death Anniversary of William Shakespeare

Call for Papers English Literature

This year marks the 400th anniversary of William Shakespeare’s death in Stratford-upon-Avon. To commemorate this landmark, International Journal of Research will publish a Special Issue in November 2016 containing Research articles exploring developments and fresh perspectives in Shakespearean criticism, historical and textual research, and drama studies. The issue is multidisciplinary in scope, with contributions from a broad range of scholarly perspectives welcomed, including—but not limited to—research in the following fields: language and literature, history, performance and theatre studies. Submissions are solicited that illuminate academic thinking about Shakespeare, his writings, the social and political contexts that shaped him, as well the enduring cultural (and other) influences of his creative achievements to the present day. Research Articles for this special issue are invited (5000 words maximum).

Topics may include, but are not limited to:

  • Shakespearean transformations: borrowing/adaptation/appropriation/intertextuality
  • Shakespeare and death
  • Speaking to/of and impersonating the dead in Shakespeare
  • Shakespeare, religion, and reformations of ritual
  • Shakespeare and memory/remembrance
  • Shakespeare and time: temporality/anachronism/archaism
  • Shakespeare and early modern conceptions of ‘life’
  • Emotion and embodiment in Shakespeare
  • Performing Shakespeare: now and then
  • Transcultural Shakespeare
  • Critical and theoretical conceptions of/engagements throughShakespeare
  • Textual resurrections: editing Shakespeare
  • Rethinking Shakespearean biography
  • Enlivening Shakespeare teaching
  • Shakespeare in a digital age
  • Women/Men and performance
  • The Language of Shakespeare’s Drama
  • Binary Oppositions in Shakespeare’s Plays
  • Cinematic Shakespeare
  • Shakespeare’s Texts in Translation
  • Teaching Shakespeare

Note: Research papers should be submitted by October 25, 2016at the latest to editor@internationaljournalofresearch.org 

 

 Submission Guidelines

We accept original theoretical or research articles, book reviews, interviews, poems and short fictions as electronic submissions via e-mail as attached documents (Microsoft word only). All manuscripts must be in Font Times New Roman, Size: 12, Line spacing: Single spaced and submitted only as MS Word 2007/ 2010.  All manuscripts should strictly follow the MLA 7th Edition Style of Citation. The documents must include name and affiliation details in the body of your submission.  Submission must be in single attachment. Subject line must be Submission of Poem/ Fiction/ Article etc. Submission e-mail must include the statement claiming that you have read the submission guidelines, you agree to the policy of the journal and that the submission is original and does not contain plagiarized material.

 Format of the Research Papers:

Authors are requested to strictly follow the MLA 7th Edition style while preparing the articles. Authors are also requested to include the following in the format of their articles:

  1. Full title with subtitle, if any. Times New Roman font, size 14, bold (not all capital letters)
  2. Name and affiliation of the author/s.
  3. An abstractof the article of about 100-150 words along with 4-5Keywords.
  4. Authors should note that the main body of the text should be prepared in such a way that no formatting is needed afterwards. Heading, sub headings and illustrations should be well incorporated within the main body of the article. Times New Roman font, size 12 and justified.
  5. The word-limit for Research paper is 5000 words inclusive of  AbstractandWorks Cited.
  6. All portions of the articles should be single-line spaced.
  7. Author should be careful regarding grammatical and typographical errors.
  8. All essays submitted must be in English for review.
  9. Plagiarism reportof the Research paper duly checked in plagiarism software like viper, Turn it in etc.

Note: Do not decorate your submission with lines, borders, special characters etc., which may lead to rejection.

 Fiction and Poetry

Our mission is to publish the finest fiction (up to 5,000 words). There are no restrictions on subjects and themes. For poetry, we aim to publish challenging and engaging works by both established and emerging poets.

Please note:

            Fiction: Submit one piece at one time.
            Poetry: Submit up to three poems at one time.
Include a short third-person biographical note in your submission.
Only previously unpublished works are considered.

Response time: One month after the deadline for respective Issues. This is applicable only to accepted submissions.

Copyright:

International Journal of Research is entitled to publish submitted work in any form (online or in print). The editor can also reproduce the submission in any form (book/ anthology) and authors will be reported about the publication in other form. We allow our authors flexible rights to republish and reproduce and distribute their published contents with third parties anywhere in any format on the following conditions:

  1. The authors will inform the editor about the intended republication or reproduction by third parties by sending a signed letter.
  2. The authors will acknowledge credits to International Journal of Research as the first publisher and include the URL (the original link location) in their works.

Plagiarism Policy:

 By submitting paper for publication to the journal, you as contributor/ author/ co-author state that:

1)      You are fully aware that plagiarism is wrong and you know that plagiarism is the use of another person’s idea or published work and pretend that it is one’s own.

2)      You declare that each contribution to your work from other people’s published or unpublished sources have been acknowledged and the source of information have been referenced.

3)      You certify that you will not allow anyone to copy your work with the intention of passing it off as his/her own work.

4)      You certify that you are solely responsible for any incomplete reference that may remain in your work.

Warm Regards

Editor

International Journal of Research

International Journal of Research IJR