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Language Awareness in the Workplace

Mustafa Wshyar Abdullah AL-Ahmedi

Lecturer at Koya University – Koya, Erbil/ Iraq




This article is exploring the use of language by the individuals of a group who are active members of a team. Real examples are given to further investigate the language awareness in real life communications.


Key Words: Language, Awareness, Workplace, Team, Individuals


  1. Introduction


Working in a team can enhance a great experience for a participant in a group work. The enhancements can be new information, the way of dealing with subject matters, and communication with people who may have different ideas. Those features are mostly very important to be existed in a person who looks for a good employment opportunity. It is a reality that most employers try to employ someone with those and some other characteristics like a good command in using technology. Integrating to a work environment is significant for an employee to perform an acceptable performance. To be a successful person in a workplace, being aware of cross cultural and different types of community of practice has its significance.

As a part of Language Awareness in the Workplace, the students had to work in one of the projects which were offered to participate. One of them was “Wish upon a Star” and the other one was “Equality and Diversity at UCLan”. All the students decided to go with the first one because the majority desired to take part in it and the minority of students did not like the idea of creating a small group. “Wish upon a Star” is a project which leads to publishing a book about star and constellation stories for children. The aim of the book is to provide the readers, who are supposed generally to be children, with constellation and star beliefs in India and the UK. The master students in English Language and Literature were requested to contribute some cultural facts and beliefs about sky issues to the content of the book.

The preparation for the project started in early December 2011 and the book is expected to be published around July 2012. This report is written to show what were done to contribute to the project and the way which steps were taken. It explores the writer’s, who was a group member, weaknesses and strengths which are very important to be discovered for improvement. The benefits will also be mentioned as the most participants could obtain new skills or at least improving the existed ones.


  1. Community of Practice


  • An Introduction to Community of Practice


The term community of practice (CofP) is frequently mentioned in the modern world, especially when individuals exist in a group form to take a responsibility. Lave and Wenger (1991: 98) define the term: “A community of practice is a set of relations among persons, activity, and world, over time and in relation with other tangential and overlapping communities of practice.” That is to say, communities of practice are groups of codes which understood and used by the same members of a group. In other words, communities of practice are the ways of communication among the members of a group to achieve the common aims.

Hardcastle and Powers (2004) see community of practice as an application to practice skills to make communication in community groups, organizations or institutions. The relation among individuals is based on the community practice. In other words, it is a community of practice which arranges an acceptable relationship among members of a group. The members can communicate with each other through some common communication rules which are known by all the other members as they are familiar with the community they gathered in.

Communities of practice are everywhere; human beings belong to several communities of practice in different time and places: at home, work, school, or in hobbies (Wenger, 1998). It can be said that a community of practice can be found in all aspects of life and it is the main tool of communicators. It is a tool which helps human beings to communicate and share ideas. They can understand each other through it and they can express themselves easily. As a result of this argument, community of practice involves in all forms of communication or it is the basic and it’s the way which makes communication.  Wenger (1998: 84) claims that there are three dimensions of a community of practice which are: mutual engagement, joint enterprise and shared repertoire. To understand these dimensions, looking at an example can be helpful before defining them. A large company which consists of many departments can be a good sample to give the reader a clear overview about the dimensions. The managers of departments can altogether engage in a group meeting which is arranged for all of them to discuss the goals of the company and they mutually engage. They may have a joint enterprise from discussing the achievements among themselves. The managers can also have shared repertoires by exchanging stories of achievements and other events.


  • Mutual Engagement

This is a regular interaction which people in pairs or groups discuss general issues (Holmes and Meyerhoff, 1999). This type is very simple which usually does not need arguments or debates. It is general discussions and it is the basis of relations. It can be said this one is used when the members have a shared goal and they all work to achieve it. As a result, the members communicate through this type of CofP because the target is the same. The communication can be while drinking a coffee or small meetings.

  • Joint Enterprise

It is more than a shared goal and needs process; complex relationships are involved in this dimension (Wenger, 1998). Members usually debate and have more serious meetings for longer hours.


  • Shared Repertoire

This dimension is the most complex one which linguistic resources involve in and The meetings are more serious in which gestures, pictures and regular meals become a part of the CofP (Holmes and Meyerhoff, 1999). The members of a group negotiate the meaning which shows disagreement sometimes.


  • Community of Practice of the MA English Language and Literature team

The group consisted of different people from different cultural and educational backgrounds. There was a main goal which was a contribution to publish a book and all the members worked for the same aim. It is worth mentioning that there was a main group in which sub groups involved in. My course mates and two of the tutors were members in a subgroup. This sub group mainly arranged meetings for its members and attended once the general meeting of the whole group. The whole group, which was the main one, included MA English Language and Literature team, MA Publishing Team and MA Creative Writing for Children Team.

The common goal of the main group and subgroups was the same which was preparing the content for the book. Each group and individual had different duties; the duties were divided among the subgroups through their educational backgrounds. My group was supposed to carry out a research and collect data related to cultural beliefs as our educational background relates to language, culture and literature. Our part was exploring the beliefs in India and the UK about constellations and stars. Two members of the group had an Indian background and two members were British who were familiar with the beliefs in the UK. The other three members had no background about both countries and they tried to help those members to collect data and find information about both cultures.

Regarding the power, all the members were equal in terms of controlling or managing the project. None of the members in the whole group including supervisors were more powerful. All the ideas were discussed and they were arranged to create a good content to the project. In brief, all the members decided on the content of the project and there was not anyone to have a final decision as the group generally decided on the final decision.


  1. Discursive Chosen Community of Practice

Discursive means everyday talk and it is a multi-utterance of talk; in order to analyze a conversation, meeting or talk, discursive should be analyzed (Tracy, 2002). Tracy (2002) argues that a talk is called discursive practice rather than a talk because it leads us to recognize the talk not like just a single thing, but to see it like an activity which has different parts. To interpret a talk, all the aspects like culture, speakers’ power status, politeness/ impoliteness and the others should be analyzed. After considering all these aspects, the exact meaning behind that speech might be explored and understood. As a result, it can be said that discursive practices are mainly used in conversation analysis to see how a conversation is conversed to show how successful it is.

The language of communication for the MA English Language and Literature team was English as nobody could talk the first language of some other participants. Some of the members of the team had different accents but it did not affect the communication. All members’ speech tone was fine and it was always stayed at an average level which was considered polite. All the members of the team started studying in the same course since September 2011 and continued till late May 2012, but still some members of the group sometimes confused some other members’ names or even they did not know. This case shows that there was a lack of communication among some of the members and they did not have tight relations with each other. If the confusion or not knowing the names does really prove this, that means the relation among members of the team had to be tighter to enhance higher achievements.

In terms of the practices of the MA English Language and Literature team, it can be said that power was essentially equal as all the members worked all together. The decisions were taken through evaluating all the individual ideas and the ones, which were believed to be the best, were chosen. Generally speaking, the power did not have an important role as a community of practice in the group. The tutors who worked with us did not have a power of leading the project to any direction which they might desire. Their role was to guide us and answering our questions about the project to do our part very well as all student members were new for such a research and project.

The practices like jocular and politeness were very common. There were many different ideas about the project and all the participants tried to show their thoughts to be admitted by other members. All the discussions were done in a very polite and friendly environment. To the best of my knowledge, cultural differences never made a problem. The obstacles or problems were solved through jokes and indirectly without harming any member. For example, a member of the group had always a problem with time managment; the member usually arrived to the meetings late. Other members did not react or sometimes I used jokes as a reaction, like telling that the member was supposed to arrive later and the moment was taken humorously. I personally tried to solve all the problems without making any trouble for the team. As it has been mentioned, the late arrivals or not attending was the biggest issue for the team. In such cases, other members volunteered to do the job which was considered to be done by someone else. In spite of this, those members who had such problems were encouraged to participate the meetings and to share towards the project.

Collectivism and individualism had their influence on the members but they did not change the direction of the activities. The members of the team were divided equally on both these cultural backgrounds. The members who came from collectivistic cultures desired to arrange more meetings, while people from individualistic cultures did not mind and they thought the discussions could be done by using Facebook and emails. A member who was from a collectivist culture was not very happy as we did not have as many meetings as that member preferred to have. In spite of this concern, all other members including others from collectivist cultures were quite happy about the progress of the project. High context and low context was another difference like collectivism and individualism, but I never felt about its existence. All the members were very friendly and as it had been mentioned earlier, the power was equal which did not make any difference among us to recognize this matter.


  1. Employability Outcomes


The project was an opportunity for me to improve the skills which directly relate to my future employment. Communication skills were among the most important ones that I needed. In my undergraduate study, I did not have any group works; though, this project was the first one in my life which I became a group member to carry out a research. Communicating with people from different academic level and nationalities made me more communicable. This is a very important feature for a person to have it while seeking an employment opportunity. After the period of the project and communicating to the members of the group, now I am more confident in terms of contacting other people. The key point here is confidence because it can be increased through practicing the skills in real workplaces.  To be honest, I was not very confident in my communication in the past, but now a serious improvement can be seen. This improved skill is a significant outcome of working on the project. It can definitely be said that I will communicate easier in the future and it is a very important feature to have to be more employable.

Time management is another issue which I see as an employability outcome of this project. I usually had been good at managing my time, but when started this project, the skill needed improvements. During the work of the project, many weaknesses could be found about the time management skills. Through consulting other members and external sources, some of the negative points were changed to positives. This point is very important for my future employment and career because success can be the result of good time management. I was provided with very useful leaflets and sources by the tutors about this issue. After reading them, I found that I had to manage my time better as it was not great. Now, my time is managed better and I can have more activities as the least amount of time is spent carelessly or without a plan. I have many goals that I work hard to achieve them. My main targets are obtaining higher degrees and learning more to have a better employment opportunity. Trying to reach all the achievements need a good plan which requires managing time very well. This skill can have a main role in my future employability.

The dream employment for me is working in a group which consists of people from different cultures and nations. Such an employment essentials cross cultural skills, that is to say, someone with a good knowledge of different cultural aspects. The group of people which involved in the project was quite diverse. I worked with people who had different ideas and attitudes. It was a good introduction for me to learn some basics of dealing with people who may think differently especially with different customs. It does not look like having a conversation with someone who the same culture is shared with. In this sense, communicators should be more careful to avoid misunderstanding. After communication with all the members of the team, my cross cultural information increased significantly.

We had many meetings to discuss the project; a great number of people from different courses and positions attended to the meetings. In the meetings, I usually could improve my leadership skills as I always tried to participate and contribute something to the meetings. It can be said that being active in a group can enhance leadership skills because usually active people become leaders. Problem solving was another issue which I could recognize it from myself; I could solve some of the problems in a few meetings. While my leadership and problem solving skills were improving, my self-confidence increased significantly. As people relied on me sometimes and they wanted me to speak at the meetings, I became more confident in communicating with other people. This helped me to recommend solutions and new ideas with less hesitation.

Using technology to enhance a group aim was another new thing for me. Facebook was generally used to update group members about the recent changes of the project and sometimes, the ideas were discussed there. We had two Facebook groups: one of them was shared between students of my course and MA publishing students, the other one was dedicated to the students of my course. The second one was not very active as we usually preferred face to face communication, but I usually became an active member of the first group. I used the group to update MA publishing students about our works. It was proven to me that a space on a social network can be very useful for a group to work on a project. People from a work place can have such a group to discuss issues and problems about their job or they can easily ask questions and search for the answers there.

Team work was very new for me and I found that it is more beneficial than doing a type of work individually. It could be seen that a team work was more successful than a work of an individual. In the project, I realized that to get great achievements for a group, a shared aim of the team is very important. That is to say, all the members of a group should work to achieve a target and the group achievements should be more important than individual attainments.

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Communication in English: A Perspective

Gurvinder Singh

Assistant Professor

Deptt. Of English

Rajiv Gandhi Govt. College, Saha


Language plays important role in the communication system whether it is verbal communication or non-verbal communication. Without communication we cannot imagine the world of expression. Communication is effective mean for creating the understanding of the concept. English language is practiced all over the world as a global language. This language has its exclusive role in expressing the message. This language is effective and relevant for setting the tone, pitch and style in any communication. This language not only enhances the communication skills of the person but also the personality of the person.


  Key Words: Communication, Link language, Pronunciation, Feedback.



Communication plays very important role for expressing the message in both ways i.e. verbally and non-verbally. Without communication we cannot imagine the world of expression. Communication is effective mean for creating the understanding of the concept. Communication can be defined as the sum of all the things which a person does when he wants to create understanding in the mind of another. It involves a systematic and continuous process of telling, listening and understanding. For creating the understanding of the concept one has to analyse the nature of the audience. Audience analysis involves various steps like size and composition, the primary audience, the probable reaction of the audience and the most important is to understand the level of understanding.


Language plays important role for understanding the level of the audience. If language of the sender and the receiver differs then it is impossible to communicate the message to the audience. English language is the universal language and it is practiced all over the world in the communication of all types.


Objective of the Study

The main objective of this paper is to highlight the relationship of the communication and English language. One can communicate the message effectively if he has the sufficient knowledge of the language and he can pursue his message in the English if he has the complete knowledge of the communication skills.



Preset paper has been divided in to three main parts. Beginning part of the study includes the introduction of the topic. Middle section includes the objectives and methodology involved in the paper. Ending part of the paper includes the conclusive view. For the information the published and on-line sources have been considered.


English as Communication

English as Communication

English is used all over the world as a global language. This language has its unique role in expressing the ideas and information. This language is effective and relevant for setting the tone, pitch and style in any communication. English language helps in the communication as follows:


  1. Link Language: This language is widely spoken and understood in the every field of communication such as in Business, Education, Sports, Entertainment, Music, Technology, Computers and Fashion etc. This language links not only the parts of a country with one another but also links country to country. The development in the various technologies used today is due to this language only. The growth of any country is completely dependent on this language as it makes the communication possible between the two countries even if they are entirely different in other perspectives like culture, style, tradition, habits and the ways of expressing the message, dialects.



  1. Pronunciation: The pronunciation of this language is based on phonetics. This feature helps us to pronounce the words in a correct manner. It has been found that one can learn the vocabulary in English very easily by making the use of Phonetics, For example: The pronunciation of the word put, cut and but is pronounced as per the phonetically symbols. This shows that we can pronounce the words though looking similar n a different manner. The vocabulary of this language is wide but becomes simple with the phonetics.


  1. Feedback: Feedback is the most important part of the communication process. If the communicator wants to know the response of the audience then the feedback is the main source. By the effective feedback process, he can know the shortcomings and drawbacks in the message related to the language. Through feedback various changes can be made in order to make the communication effective and progressive. This language is apt for the quick and better response because of the globalised characteristics of this language.

Communication Skills and English Language

Communication skills can be enhanced through English language in an easy manner as this language is understood and spoken in almost every culture. International communication is preferred mostly in this language. All the communication skills such as reading, writing, speaking and listening can be developed effectively in this language due the following reasons:

  1. As this language is universally accepted so the skills on large level can be enhanced globally.
  2. Use of symbols and signals are easy to express through this language as the complementary channel.
  3. The literature in this language is vast and easily accessible and available in the offline and online manner hence it becomes time savior.
  4. Most of the words are easily understood and pronounced in this language which helps in the effective usage of the communication skills.

Conclusive Talk

In the modern competitive scenarios when the entire world has become a global village, the universally acceptance of the English language helps in creating the sound base for the effective communication system. Through this language one can express his ideas better than that of any other local language.  International communication requires such a language that has the global access. This language is suitable for the communication at international as well as local level. Interpersonal communication can be performed efficiently in English among the audience of various cultures.


Kushal Sri Jin (2013): Business Communication, VK Global Publications Pvt. Ltd., Delhi.

Khanna Monika, Dawar Shivani (2015): Business Communication Skills, Helpline Publications, Jalandhar.

Gomathinathan Thiru S. (2004): Communicative English, Tamilnadu Textbooks Corporation, Chennai.

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English Language: A Global Medium of Literal, Technical and Professional Communication



                               Department of Applied Science and Humanities

     Naraina College of Engineering and Technology & Krishna Institute of Technology,

                                         Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh, India



Abstract: English is a Germanic language which has its multidimensional roots sprouting and blossoming with communicative fruits. Broadly speaking, it would be difficult to thrive in the modernistic mechanism of this world without adopting the knowledge of English as it is an international language spoken and written in most of the countries both as a native and as a second language. Moreover, it has a remarkable impression of sharing different literatures, techniques and professional facilities prevalent and predominant in various nations. In the prevailing scenario of the 21st century, English language has been a lingua franca of the whole developing world that is passing through a tunnel of spherical amelioration. As a matter of fact, English has achieved the status of the root language through which the process of worldwide communication whether it is concerned with business, medicine, transport, technology, trade, culture, literature or marketing is carried out successfully. In the existing circumstances, it is the master key to unlock or analyse socio-cultural, literal, technical and professional conceptions of both national and international growth. So far as the matter is concerned, the revolutionary impact of modernization as well as westernization is spreading all over the world under the shade of a triangular umbrella of three-dimensional communication ‒ literal, technical and professional. Thus, this paper, fundamentally, focuses on the specific characteristics of English language that is, nowadays, a dominating and fascinating medium of literal, technical and professional communication.

Keywords: English, communication, literal, technical, professional and global etc.

Introduction: The term ‘English’ is derived from the surname ‘Angle’, the name of a Germanic tribe which is thought to be originated from the Angeln area of Jutland, a part of northern Germany. In fact, Germanic people invaded Britain and settled there in the fifth century A.D., and, thus, Britain became the main originating source of English language. Shorter Oxford English Dictionary defines the term ‘English’ as ‘the language spoken by the Germanic invaders of Britain in the 5th cent. A. D. Now, the language descended from this, used in Britain, Ireland, Australia, New Zealand, the U.S., Canada, and many other countries.’1 Similarly, Webster’s Encyclopedic Unabridged Dictionary of the English Language specifies the term ‘English’ as ‘the Germanic language of the British Isles, widespread and standard also in the U.S. and most of the British Commonwealth, historically termed Old English (c 450–c 1150), Middle English (c 1150–c 1475), and Modern English (after c 1475)’.2

By the time the Germanic tribes had settled down in Britain, the land included Scotland, which had hitherto been unknown as a region. Britain thus became a land that accommodated the Scots from Ireland, the Britons concentrating in Wales and the Germans in its southern part. The Angles, Saxons and Jutes soon had accepted a common name for their identity and came to be known as Angles which term came to fix as English, after transformation into Engles and Englese. The southern land became almost their property and was called Angles land which became Engles land, and Engle land and England at last. Their dialects namely Jutic, Saxon and Angles respectively were called by a common name Angles which became English because of the interrelatedness of the dialects.3

Nowadays, English is striving to achieve the status of the most popular language of the world. It passes through multi-dimensional routes sprinkling almost all significant tracts of human offshoots. In the present circumstances, it is not easy to make the stem of human race stronger and longer without the watering of English language. In some countries, it is spoken and written as a native language and in many others as a second language. Moreover, it has an observable impact of dealing with different literary features, technical properties and prevailing professionals which are efficacious in the existing scenario of the 21st century. As a matter of fact, English language is nothing but a lingua-franca of the whole globe developing under the impression of versatile betterment. The process of communication whether it is related to any profession, transportation, medication, science, technology, culture or literary structure is executed successfully with the assistance of English language. More or less, it has all the functional properties of a master key that can open or analyse all the literary, technical and professional aspects of human development. Consequently, it has got the credit of an international language.

English has rather grown enormously during the last few decades because of many scientific inventions. The gramophone, the telephone, the wireless and the tape-recording machine have, to some extent, done for the spoken language what printing did for the written. It is often said that the popularity of broadcasting is leading to an extension of the use of Standard English and a decline in the use of dialect. Because of its inventiveness, territorial expansion, numerical strength of speakers, immense power and influence, richness of vocabulary and expressiveness, and lastly, its fitness for purposes of trade, travel, modernity and culture, its Spanish, Italian, German and although new rivals, such as Russian, Chinese and Hindustani have appeared, they are still in no position to challenge the supremacy of English. 4

In point of fact, English is the most useful and fruitful language in the world. In addition, it has its deep roots in each and every part of the colonial construction which was erected by the Britishers. With the enlargement of British sovereignty, it stepped into India, Africa, South Asia, Australia, New Zealand, America and many other countries with the marks of indelible impression. In the earlier stages, it came to these countries as a language of trade and commerce, traffic and traverse, and exploration and expedition, but, with the passage of time, it became the sole medium of instruction in most of the countries. Nowadays, it has become the official language of the international affairs such as business, air-traffic, shipping, United Nations Diplomacy, world banking, academic research, space travel, worldwide networking and all other disciplines of science and technology.

Undoubtedly, the modernistic world is stepping forward with the advancement of science and technology. It is the role of English language through which scientific and technical inventions of England, America, Germany, France and Russia are brought into the territories of India. Moreover, the modern system of education has intensified the role of English language at the international level because the most famous universities of the world utilize English as the medium of instruction, transmission and communication.

Importance of English Language in Literal Communication: When the process of communication is carried out literally, textually or verbally, literal communication takes place. Indeed, literal communication whether it is concerned with the form of oral or written communication is the basis of conversational, translational and professional transmission between two poles or parties. There are thousands of languages spoken in the world, and none can be able to adopt the knowledge of so many languages; therefore, the utilization of English is needed extensively. In reality, English is the bridge-language that can cover the gap between two different language speakers. It may be used as a common language between two distant speakers though their native or regional languages may be different.

          As a matter of fact, the whole world is just like a theatrical stage on which dramatic play of human beings through the medium of literal communication is being showed. So far as the matter is concerned, literal communication plays a dominant role in both human movement and improvement because the existence of human life cannot take place without the exchange of ideas, facts, money and goods; and it is the function of literal communication which carries out all these activities. In a local area, a native or regional language is used to execute this process, but, when the process of communication is carried out at the national or international level, literal communication through English medium is required unanimously.

Significance of English Language in Technical Communication: With the technocratic revolution prevailing in the globular stratum, the significance of English language has become stronger. The technological platform of the world refers to the international market that transfers technological concepts and outlets from one country to the other one through the medium of English language. Since the international market has been more radiative, competitive and aggressive, the importance of English language goes on augmenting. More or less, English language is having a profound influence on the multidimensional features of technical communication, and there is a pressing requirement of English communication which may generate fruitful foundation of universal unification.

Technical communication is a special stalk of general communication and there is no fundamental fluctuation between the two. Shorter Oxford English Dictionary specifies the term ‘technical’ as ‘pertaining to, involving, or characteristic of a particular art, science, profession, or occupation, or the applied arts and sciences generally’.5 Moreover, it is ‘pertaining to or connected with the mechanical or industrial arts and the applied sciences’.6 In this way, it is explicit that the technical communication is the sort of communication in which scientific and technical contents are transferred from pillar to post. Simply stated, technical communication is the transmittance of scientific and technical tenors from one person to another. In this connexion, M. Ashraf Rizvi rightly comments:

“Technical communication is the transmission of scientific and technical information from one individual or group to another, and it includes all the methods, means and media, channels, networks and systems of communication used for the exchange of the information…. In other words, technical communication is a multi-dimensional, dynamic and interactive process that involves the effective transmission of facts, ideas, thoughts, and a systematic understanding of scientific and technical subjects.”7

Broadly speaking, there are three dominant components on which the worldwide movement of human development is founded. The first component is the stream of science; the second one is the gleam of technology; and the third one is the dream of English language. Science provides new inventions to human race, technology offers new techniques to human face while English language is the medium through which useful and profitable knowledge of advancement is transferred immediately from one part of the globe to the other one. As a result, it can be inferred that the real human preferment is based on a triangular shape which is made up of science, technology and English language. In this reference, S. C. Mundhra’s thematic analysis is quite revealing:

“Ours is the age of science and technology, with a small portion of time allowed as leisure. So English will have to make itself more scientific, precise and brief…. Let us remain content with the present English speech and wish for the dawn of a better future. Let us also hope that the flourishing societies, like the Philological Society, the English Place-Name Society, the linguistic Society of America, and the Society for pure English will be able to brave the weather arising from time to time on the horizon of English and steer it through without failing.” 8

Dominance of English Language in Professional Communication: One may be called professional if he is ‘engaged in a specified occupation or activity for money or as a means of earning a living, rather than as a pastime’.9 In this way, professional communication is the stream of communication in which exchange of ideas pertaining to any profession or occupation is done illustriously. Indeed, the term ‘technical’ is concerned with any branch of science and technology whereas the word ‘professional’ is a wider term and relates us to the any branch of science, technology, commerce, trade and business. If any profession is carried out at a large scale, English language is needed as the whole world has thousands of native, regional and local languages which cannot be learnt simultaneously for the communicative purpose. In this case, English plays the role of a mediator between two distant communicators or transmitters. As a whole, English is rather a professional language as it is used in most of the domestic and nationalistic occupations. Moreover, it is the main communicable language of the international transportation.

Conclusion: English is the only language that has the capacity to link one country with the other one. Besides, it is the language that is able to unite the human beings at the international level. We can talk to the persons of the U.K., the U.S.A., Canada, Australia, New Zealand, and many other countries if we are expert in the stream of English. In the existing world, it is the most dynamic language that can be used as a means of communication for any purpose. It is rather a multidimensional traffic-platform on which the vehicles of human development are running smoothly. Indeed, it has got the momentum of circulation in most of the universities, colleges, schools, Courts and many other official departments which are playing a prominent role in the field of literal, technical and professional advancement. Taking into consideration the aims of English language, S. C. Mundhra rightly states:

“The general aims of learning English have been three: English being a world-language promotes international understanding; it is a medium to come into contact with the best in cultural terms, that is, a medium for the study of arts and science; and lastly, it furthers our vocational or professional interests, like law, medicine, engineering and technology.”10

In these days of globalization, it is explicit that English has become the universal language for literal, technical and professional communication. In spite of numerous cultural and traditional movements in support of vernacular languages, it has been growing and developing without any obstruction for the ages. In order to be successful in the global market, one must be proficient in the communicative skills of English language ‒ Speaking, Listening, Reading and Writing. In the concluding scenario, H. S. Bhatia’s analytical observation is noticeable:

“The knowledge of English is also essential for understanding the modern science, trade, commerce, technological and industrial languages. In Information Technology, all computer language is based on English, though there might have been some influence thereon of several other languages also in various ways.”11

In fact, the whole world is nothing but a market place where exchange of concepts, techniques and things is done unintermittedly. This interchange of goods cannot be done without active participation of English language. Undoubtedly, it is a living and vibrant language which has conquered all the worldly languages with its popularity, beauty and importance. It has held the potential performance in any sort of communication whether it is literal or techno-professional. In addition, it has sowed the communicational seeds of aroma which are about to flourish into the form of global modernization with lingual unification. However, it is the youngest of all the languages of the world, it has been the leader of all the languages. Admittedly, the revolutionary impression of global evolution is extending everywhere under the umbrage of a triangular umbrella of tri-dimensional communication ‒ literal, technical and professional. Finally, it is right to argue that we cannot communicate literally, technically and professionally without the knowledge of English language if we want to impart something globally.


  1. Lesley Brown, et al., Shorter Oxford English Dictionary, 6th ed. (New York: Oxford University Press, 2007), p. 834.
  2. Webster’s Encyclopedic Unabridged Dictionary (U.S.A.: RHR Press, 2001), p. 645.
  3. R. Venkataraman, A History of the English Language (New Delhi: Rama Brothers India Pvt. Ltd., 2012), p. 8.
  4. C. Mundhra, A Handbook of Literature in English for Competitive Examinations (Bareilly: Prakash Book Depot, 2009), p. 403.
  5. Lesley Brown, et al., Shorter Oxford English Dictionary, 6th ed. (New York: Oxford University Press, 2007), p. 3194.
  6. Webster’s Encyclopedic Unabridged Dictionary (U.S.A.: RHR Press, 2001), p. 1950.
  7. Ashraf Rizvi, Professional Communication (New Delhi: Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Company Ltd., 2007), p. 3.
  8. C. Mundhra, A Handbook of Literature in English for Competitive Examinations (Bareilly: Prakash Book Depot, 2009), p. 405.
  9. Lesley Brown, et al., Shorter Oxford English Dictionary, 6th ed. (New York: Oxford University Press, 2007), p. 2360.
  10. C. Mundhra, A Handbook of Literature in English for Competitive Examinations (Bareilly: Prakash Book Depot, 2009), p. 406.
  11. S. Bhatia, English Literature (New Delhi: Ramesh Publishing House, 2009), p. 613.

Notification: Dr. Dhruv Shankar presented this paper in 10th International & 46th National Annual ELTAI Conference entitled Learning and Teaching English in India: Setting Standards at Raj Kumar Goel Institute of Technology for Women, Ghaziabad on 10th July, 2015.

AUTHOR PROFILE: Dr. Dhruv Shankar (b. 1976) has carried out his higher education ‒ B.A. (English Language & Literature), M.A.(English), B.Ed. and Ph.D. ‒ from C.S.J.M. University, Kanpur and collected the teaching experience of grammatical, literary and communicative English from S.M.L.K.S.D. Inter College, Naraina College of Engineering & Technology and Krishna Institute of Technology, Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh. As a matter of fact, he has got the credit of numerous research articles, four poems and two short stories published in prestigious national and international journals. Moreover, he has contributed, participated and presented papers in many national seminars and international conferenc

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Special Issue on 400th Death Anniversary of William Shakespeare

Call for Papers English Literature

This year marks the 400th anniversary of William Shakespeare’s death in Stratford-upon-Avon. To commemorate this landmark, International Journal of Research will publish a Special Issue in November 2016 containing Research articles exploring developments and fresh perspectives in Shakespearean criticism, historical and textual research, and drama studies. The issue is multidisciplinary in scope, with contributions from a broad range of scholarly perspectives welcomed, including—but not limited to—research in the following fields: language and literature, history, performance and theatre studies. Submissions are solicited that illuminate academic thinking about Shakespeare, his writings, the social and political contexts that shaped him, as well the enduring cultural (and other) influences of his creative achievements to the present day. Research Articles for this special issue are invited (5000 words maximum).

Topics may include, but are not limited to:

  • Shakespearean transformations: borrowing/adaptation/appropriation/intertextuality
  • Shakespeare and death
  • Speaking to/of and impersonating the dead in Shakespeare
  • Shakespeare, religion, and reformations of ritual
  • Shakespeare and memory/remembrance
  • Shakespeare and time: temporality/anachronism/archaism
  • Shakespeare and early modern conceptions of ‘life’
  • Emotion and embodiment in Shakespeare
  • Performing Shakespeare: now and then
  • Transcultural Shakespeare
  • Critical and theoretical conceptions of/engagements throughShakespeare
  • Textual resurrections: editing Shakespeare
  • Rethinking Shakespearean biography
  • Enlivening Shakespeare teaching
  • Shakespeare in a digital age
  • Women/Men and performance
  • The Language of Shakespeare’s Drama
  • Binary Oppositions in Shakespeare’s Plays
  • Cinematic Shakespeare
  • Shakespeare’s Texts in Translation
  • Teaching Shakespeare

Note: Research papers should be submitted by October 25, 2016at the latest to 


 Submission Guidelines

We accept original theoretical or research articles, book reviews, interviews, poems and short fictions as electronic submissions via e-mail as attached documents (Microsoft word only). All manuscripts must be in Font Times New Roman, Size: 12, Line spacing: Single spaced and submitted only as MS Word 2007/ 2010.  All manuscripts should strictly follow the MLA 7th Edition Style of Citation. The documents must include name and affiliation details in the body of your submission.  Submission must be in single attachment. Subject line must be Submission of Poem/ Fiction/ Article etc. Submission e-mail must include the statement claiming that you have read the submission guidelines, you agree to the policy of the journal and that the submission is original and does not contain plagiarized material.

 Format of the Research Papers:

Authors are requested to strictly follow the MLA 7th Edition style while preparing the articles. Authors are also requested to include the following in the format of their articles:

  1. Full title with subtitle, if any. Times New Roman font, size 14, bold (not all capital letters)
  2. Name and affiliation of the author/s.
  3. An abstractof the article of about 100-150 words along with 4-5Keywords.
  4. Authors should note that the main body of the text should be prepared in such a way that no formatting is needed afterwards. Heading, sub headings and illustrations should be well incorporated within the main body of the article. Times New Roman font, size 12 and justified.
  5. The word-limit for Research paper is 5000 words inclusive of  AbstractandWorks Cited.
  6. All portions of the articles should be single-line spaced.
  7. Author should be careful regarding grammatical and typographical errors.
  8. All essays submitted must be in English for review.
  9. Plagiarism reportof the Research paper duly checked in plagiarism software like viper, Turn it in etc.

Note: Do not decorate your submission with lines, borders, special characters etc., which may lead to rejection.

 Fiction and Poetry

Our mission is to publish the finest fiction (up to 5,000 words). There are no restrictions on subjects and themes. For poetry, we aim to publish challenging and engaging works by both established and emerging poets.

Please note:

            Fiction: Submit one piece at one time.
            Poetry: Submit up to three poems at one time.
Include a short third-person biographical note in your submission.
Only previously unpublished works are considered.

Response time: One month after the deadline for respective Issues. This is applicable only to accepted submissions.


International Journal of Research is entitled to publish submitted work in any form (online or in print). The editor can also reproduce the submission in any form (book/ anthology) and authors will be reported about the publication in other form. We allow our authors flexible rights to republish and reproduce and distribute their published contents with third parties anywhere in any format on the following conditions:

  1. The authors will inform the editor about the intended republication or reproduction by third parties by sending a signed letter.
  2. The authors will acknowledge credits to International Journal of Research as the first publisher and include the URL (the original link location) in their works.

Plagiarism Policy:

 By submitting paper for publication to the journal, you as contributor/ author/ co-author state that:

1)      You are fully aware that plagiarism is wrong and you know that plagiarism is the use of another person’s idea or published work and pretend that it is one’s own.

2)      You declare that each contribution to your work from other people’s published or unpublished sources have been acknowledged and the source of information have been referenced.

3)      You certify that you will not allow anyone to copy your work with the intention of passing it off as his/her own work.

4)      You certify that you are solely responsible for any incomplete reference that may remain in your work.

Warm Regards


International Journal of Research

International Journal of Research IJR
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Book Review: City Times and Other Poems by Vihang A. Naik

Shashikant Nishant Sharma

(Author, Poet, Editor, Social Activist, Planning Consultant)

Editor, International Journal of Research

One of the recent book that I read is ‘City Times and Other Poems’ by Vihang A. Naik. The author has been able to display his feelings and emotions through poems on the fate of city life and changing behavior of the city residents. The poet has used different style in different poems and he has been able to display maturity of thought and expression through his poems in this book. The poems of the book provide readers a mirror to look into life of a city in all its shades, and it is common to find some expression of glory and misery that people feel in in his City. This collection of poems is of philosophical thoughts tested on the altar of reality of life. The Poems are divided in six segments i.e.

First Section i.e., ‘Love Song of a Journey Man’ that is more or less an inner travelogue, the expression of a poem when he perceives things happening around him. It can be seen from the expressions of some of poems like ‘You Revealed the Edge’, ‘The World’, ‘Time’ expresses the feeling of a man who is always on a journey whether living in city or village.

Second section i.e. ‘Mirrored Man’ how people in the city are capricious like a chameleon. Some other poems like ‘Chameleon is Not That Great’ and ‘He is Different Behind’ express how a man is more deceitful than anything else is.

Third section i.e., ‘The Path of Wisdom’ is about the benefits of the practice of meditation and knowledge. Some poems like When You do Not Find’ and ‘Listen! Death Knocks’ express the extent of futility of this life and convey how wisdom can show humanity a path to salvation. The poem tries to convey a message to humanity how this life is futile and our existence is for greater purpose which can be served on listening to inner voice.

Fourth Section i.e., ‘Self Portrait’ conveys a how man conceives of himself and he might remain untouched by the heavenly blessings around him.

Fifth Section i.e., ‘At the Shore’ expresses the poet’s sense of futility, memory, pain, exile and alienation in this crowded city life.

Sixth Section or Last Section i.e., City Times’ is an expression of individuals’ routinely exchange murder for murder, when the healing grace of authentic spirituality is usurped by the divisive politics of the religious organizations, and when broken hearts bleed pain in darkness without the relief of compassion. Some of poems like ‘Illusion’, Desire’, ‘Pleasure’ express the things, which are governing the life in city, which is getting devoid of spirituality and welfare society’s principles.

The poet has been able to deliver exceptional work and the poems serve as a message of intellectual who can guide you and not dictate how you behave and how you can better your life and the life of others. It can be asserted only after going through the poems of Vihang A. Naik’s City Times and Other Poems. The simple yet poetic expression of this modern age poet has brought forward the real image of modern life in a city, which is going through a number of changes good and bad. The intensity and uniqueness of the poems in this collection named ‘City Times and Other Poem’ a must read for those who enjoy modern poetry. Every poem in this collection is a jewel well stud in the crown of poetry.

The poet has used expressions and imagery of light as hope and other expressions, which adds value to the poetic expression of the life of city dwellers. This collection of poems has a unique identity which is amplified by the remarkable brevity and precision through which poet has used them The City is the central image in the collections of poems which is also a symbolic expression of life with all its labyrinthine streets which leading you to some directions which are misleading and ambiguous.

Poet Vihang A. Naik has been able in delicately placing the expression of the objects of the visible world, which have become invisible due to various reasons and changing habits, in a sophisticated position, which strikes the soul and gives them a tragic force to rethink.

According to Pradip Kansi , writing in ”The Scoria”: “City Times & Other Poems” the poet appears to be “quite sincere in his own unselfconscious way….” while according to Moti Mukhopadhyaya “The book of verses by Vihang Naik has selected a style of his own, different from the running practice. Furthermore, the review of the book reveals how the brevity of use of words, selection of right word in right place, distribution of words as per flow of thought, continuity or breaking us of a line in the interest of rhyme and the expression of deep thoughts in these verses make them all the more attractive and educative for readers. According to Dr. B. S.Murthy writing in “JELF Contour”: “City Times & Other Poems”: All his poems are marked by precision and intensity, and, of course, typographical experimentation. The views and opinions of different authors and poets assets the quality of the poems and their meaningfulness in our modern life. It can be stated without any doubt that his collection of poems is like an autobiographic poems coming from poet’s soul in a poetic form of expression which has beauty, meaning and philosophical traits.

The Indian Book Chronicle has praised the book as saying, “The poet has something up his sleeve to say beyond the appearances. He does not describe what things are, but what they are stirring to be, in his consciousness.”

The short and simple poems filled with remarkably deep emotions from poet’s sense of vulnerability, memory, pain and loss that dwellers of city feel. In this collection of poems, it is bound to find some sublime possibility of transcendence and insight after reading the poems. All the poems here are easy to understand, but a reader will find hard to move forward without pondering over the thoughts and expression that is exhibited in these poems. “City Times and Other Poems”, is perhaps one of the most distinguished literary work of poetry in recent time and an opportunity to review the great work of poetry is like diving deep into the ocean of thoughts and feeling that are hidden in the simple and day to day use language of expression.

The image of memory like a candle, lighting up a darkened room is truly exquisite and symbolic of vibrant hope-The Journal of Literature & Aesthetics (India)

“…when broken hearts bleed pain in darkness without the relief of compassion, the voice of an exceptional poet introducing exceptional work is not something the world can afford to dismiss….” Argha Ghosh at SpectralHues

“…When our words fall “in empty spaces”, when we toddle “for a rhyme”, Vihang woots under city lights. Our streets gather fog…Vihang shows calibre in bringing out the dingy shades. Modern is here, go grab the rebel.” Debanjan at Goodreads.

“The images strewn throughout the collection attain a composite whole in highlighting the depravity, hollowness and futility of city life. Despite the stark images that the poet uses in the poems, the delicate sensitivity with which he evokes them is fascinating” …” Rit Chattopadhyay at Spectralhuse.

Vihang A. Naik throws light on the life of a city in all its shades, glory, and misery in his City Times and Other Poems.” – Deepkia Verma at Writing Geeks.

“Vihang Naik’s poems are intuitive, thoughtful, philosophical and creative pieces, where the poet displays a confident command, mature, with a fine balance of emotional intensity, irony, ranging across themes and places with experimentation. ” – Dr. Vishwanathan Bite at The Criterion (December 2012 .Vol. III. Issue IV).

Some of the views expressed by some poets and authors clearly substantiate the quality of the poems that has been well preserved in this collection of poems. Vihang A. Naik has used the modern style of poetry and at the same that he has been able to use different forms of poetic expression. One can find how poet has used different forms, lines, rhyme to convey his feelings. The expression of figure of speech like simile, metaphor and hyperbole has been used in the poems to amplify the expression and meaning of the words. Overall, poet Vihang A. Naik has done a marvelous work and written these poems, which will be an example of modern poetry form of free style. Yet he has been able to use poetry as a tool for conveying his views and feelings about meditation and spirituality.

One of the unique feature of this book is intentional attempt of the poet to make you think and express yourself is done through the blank pages which is there for readers to pen down his/her thoughts and view which one feels when stimulated by his poems. Readers can find between ‘my self’ and ‘discovered beyond thought’ are five blank pages. The poet wish to be an enabler or an igniter for your flame of wisdom and knowledge, which is far beyond anyone’s thought and speech. Vihang Naik has tried to stir in you and your consciousness to evolve your thoughts and feeling through his short piercing poems. He tries to invade in the concrete wall of your imagination through simple meaningful play of words in his poetry. The style of saying great things in simple words is vivid in his collection of poems.


Naik, Vihang A. (2014). City Times and Other Poems. Author House, UK.

Inside Stories (2014). Book Review: – City Times and Other Poems by Vihang A. Naik. Accessed on 22 January 2015. (2015). Criticism. Accessed on 23 January 2015.

Argha Ghosh (2014). City Times & Other Poems by Vihang A. Naik. Retrieved on 21 January 2015 from

 Rit Chattopadhyay (2014). Book Review: City Times and Other Poems. Retrieved on 20 January 2015 from http://www. spectralhues .com/books/ book-reviews/ 2014/11/ book-review-city-times-and-other-poems/

Debanjan Chatterjee. (2014). City Times and Other Poems by Vihang A. Naik. Retrieved on 21 January 2015 from

Dr. Sachin C Ketkar (2014). The Journal of A City Traveler. Retried on 22 January 2015 from