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A Physics Course-Book (II) For DIPLOMA ENGINEERING

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Author’s NameN . Sinha


This new book serves the purposeful need for students of  diploma in engineering whose courses of study follows this book in  two volume . Vol (I) deals with basic physics  in which  we have  discussed Units & Measurement , Heat , Light & Modern physics .The  volume (II) widely covers with  Applied Physics in which we have discussed Kinematics and some chapter of General Physics like  Angular motion &Simple Harmonic motion and kinetics . This volume also covers the study of Non – destructive  testing of materials as well as  Acoustics of building .

Chapter 1.2 (i) explains about  rest & motion in one dimension in  a given frame of reference of the  observer  in brief  .  On the basis of the above definition the observer frame of reference has been  divided into two categories in chapter 1.2(ii) as  Inertial & Non –inertial frame of reference in which   it has been briefly explained using   Newton law of motion  as inertial frame of reference on the other hand a frame of reference in which Newton law of motion cannot be defined is called Non-Inertial frame of reference   with an example as Earth is an Inertial frame of reference  but since it is revolving around the sun it may not be strictly speaking to be  an Inertial frame of reference . In chapter 1.2(iii)  the of Definition of Distance, Displacement, Speed , Velocity  and Acceleration  has  been illustrated  with suitable diagram  .After a brief introduction about  the above physical quantities used to define the motion  of a body  Rectilinear  Motion has been described with following equation as v = u + at , S = ut + ½ a t2  &  v2= u2 + 2as  in  chapter 1.2(iv) . Chapter 1.2(v) aims to study  a body which is travelling a distance travelled   in nth second .On the basis of which it became simpler to describe the  uniform motion of a body in different interval  of time . The above equation of motion may be illustrated using  Time –position graph in  chapter 1.2(vi)  and Velocity-Time Diagrams for uniform  velocity in chapter 1.2(vii).Further in chapter 1.2(viii) the motion of a Uniform acceleration and uniform retardation and equations of motion for motion  under gravity  has been described extensively .

In the next chapter 1.3: (i) Angular Motion is being  defined with following parameter as angular displacement , angular velocity and  acceleration . chapter 1.3(ii) gives Relation between angular velocity and linear velocity . Chapter 1.3(iii) has extensively discussed the three equation of motion for a body on circular path .As the above mentioned equation for distance travelled by a  particle in nth second the Angular distance travelled by particle in nth second  has been mentioned in chapter  1.3(iv) . In chapter 1.3(v) the definition of S.H.M. has been described as projection of  uniform  circular motion on any one diameter  and  Graphical  Representation of   displacement  velocity, acceleration of particle in SHM for S.H.M. starting from mean position and from extreme  position in chapter 1.3(vi).

The next unit chapter 2.2:(i) begins with study of Concept of Force  in which  different  types of forces in nature may have  been  classified . Chapter 2.2(ii) discusses two types of forces as Contact & Non-contact forces  . Further study has been given with 2.2(iii)  study the  definition of momentum & 2.2(iv) Laws of conservation of linear momentum . An extensive  study of effect of force on  basis of time  of influence  has been discussed as impulse  & impulsive force in chapter 2.2(v) .Chapter 2.2(vi)  is a brief study of Newton’s laws of motion  with  equations & applications.  Chapter 2.2(vii) is the study of   Motion of lift .

In the next unit chapter 2.3(i) has been covered with the   definition of work, Power & Energy . Chapter 2.3 (ii) is Equation for P.E.  & chapter 2.3(iii) is study of Work-Energy Principle  with  chapter 2.3(iv) is Representation of work by using graph  &  2.3 (v)  is  graphical study of Work Done  by torque

Chapter3.2(i) explains the definition of material science as branch of applied science  relation with  solid state physics or solid state chemistry  in which one can study about structure of material and their properties as a interdisciplinary study about  materials for applicable  purposes .

Further chapter 3.2 (ii) illustrate  classification of materials in  two categories in which material has been classified (a) Metals (e.g. Iron ,Gold , Aluminum , Silver Copper etc) & (b)Non-Metals ( e.g. Leather ,Rubber , plastics ,asbestos ,carbon etc.) . A detail study has been focussed  on Testing methods of materials in chapter 3.2 (III)  for which the  requirement of testing of materials is subjected for quality maintenance of the material in  engineering for  application purposes  . A wide  range of method has been described in detail for  most cheap and suitable application of maintained quality of the material in industries  .Despite  its  advantages the  limitations of N.D.T method has that has been covered in  chapter 3.2(IV). The different names of N.D.T. Methods used in industries has been discussed in chapter  3.2(V)  as  X-ray radiography , Gamma-ray radiography   ,  Magnetic particle inspection , Ultrasonic testing ,  Damping method & Electrical Method .

Factors on Which selection of N.D.T .depends has been discussed  in chapter  3.2(vi) as Load ,Temperature , Composition , Grain-size,  Thickness of the material &  Service condition . For application point of view  Study of principle, Set up & Procedure  has been extensively covered in  for   X-ray radiography, Gamma-ray radiography, Magnetic particle inspection,  Ultrasonic testing ,  Damping method  &  Electrical Method . Chapter 3.2(vii) Working , advantages ,limitations , Applications and Application code of   N.D.T. methods as Penetrant method, Magnetic particle method ,Radiography, Ultrasonic , Thermography  has been covered in this chapter ..       .  Chapter 4.2(i ) is the of study Acoustics the branch of physics in which we study about sound . The next chapter 4.2(ii ) studies about  Characteristics of audiable sound  and  chapter 4.2(iii) Intensity & Loudness of sound ,Weber and Fechner’s Law . Further chapter 4.2(iv) discusses the Limit of intensity and loudness and chapter. Chapter 4.2(v) is the study of Echoes & chapter 4.2(vi) is the study of Reverberation & Reverberation time (Sabine’s formula) Timbre(quality of sound) of sound have been studied in chapter 4.2(vii) How Pitch or frequency of sound is related to audiable sound wave and music system is the study part of 4.2(viii) . The Factors affecting Acoustical planning of auditorium reverberation has been briefly outlined in chapter 4.2(ix). In an auditorium design the Creep Focusing is an important  study of  for checking the long term deformation in building has been given in chapter  4.2(x)  . The characteristics of sound wave as standing wave has been studied  in chapter 4.2(xi). The coefficient of sound wave absorption has been studied in chapter 4.2(xii) .The Sound insulation & Noise pollution and the different ways of  controlling these factor has been given in  4.2(xiv) & 4.2(xv). The  chapter 4.3 (ii) is the study of  Definition of luminous intensity, intensity of illumination with their SI units .  Chapter 4.3(iii) is the study  Inverse square law and Photometric equation . In photometry chapter 4.3(iv) Bunsen’s photometer-ray diagram has been introduced & Chapter 4.3(vi) is the study of  Need of indoor Lighting  . Chapter4.3(vii) is the study of  Indoor lighting schemes .and factors affecting Indoor Lighting .

N . Sinha

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