Review and Synthesis on Theory of Investment

Y.Bala Manikanta

Abstract


Review theories of investment and their empirical applications. Starting with the basic profit maximization problem of the firm then neoclassical, accelerator, Tobin’s theories are derived with the use of dynamic optimization. This illustrates how the various theories of investments differ, and in particular the underlying differences in assumptions are illuminated.Human, financial, and social capital from several contexts affects child and adolescent well-being. Families and schools are among the most important, and research is increasingly studying how effects of capital across such contexts affect child and adolescent academic and social outcomes. Some research suggests that families may be more powerful than schools in promoting child and adolescent wellbeing. Additional research is needed to more fully understand how capital across institutions interacts in producing child well-being, when and why multiple institutions or levels of analysis are relevant, and how several contexts can form chains of causation. In order to understand current developments, the paper adopts a framework which combines industry/market and firm levels of analysis. Existing literature is reviewed using this framework. Industry level issues relate to rivalry between firms, the power of suppliers and customers, and the threats from new entrants and substitutes. Firm level issues concern deal generation, initial and second screening, valuation and due diligence, deal approval and structuring, post-contractual monitoring, investment realization, and entrepreneurs’ exit and reconstructing with venture capitalists. This is followed by a review of the evidence on the performance of venture capital firms. 


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