Pen2Print is the Registered trademark of Edupedia Pvt Ltd

Archive by Author

Exploring the Literature: Does Foreign Direct Investment Affect Total factor productivity in Developing Economies?

Foreign Direct Investment Affect Total factor productivity in Developing Economies

Ayesha Serfraz (1)

(1) Assistant Professor at University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan.

Doctoral student at University of Hamburg, Germany.     

 

NOTE FROM AUTHOR

As this study is based on analysis of existing literature, many studies have been cited in which Author’s original words have been stated. All such citations also mention the page numbers of original article from where the exact words have been taken.

 

Abstract:

This paper analyzes the relationship between Foreign Direct Investment inflows (FDI) and Total Factor Productivity (TFP) by studying the existing literature on the topic. Numerous studies have been conductive to test the relationship between these two variables but there is no consensus regarding the direction of affiliation. The basic purpose of this study is to find the reason behind different answers and for this reason the existing body of literature on this topic has been referred to. In addition, the concepts of FDI and TFP have been discussed along-with the effects of FDI on developing countries and its importance. After analyzing different studies relevant to this topic, it has been concluded that the difference in results are mainly due to econometric techniques applied by different researchers to test the relationship empirically. Furthermore, some statistical figures and their analysis have been presented in appendix.

Keywords

Foreign Direct Investment, Total Factor Productivity, Developing economies.

Jel Classification Codes: F21, O47, O57

1. Introduction

The debate over relationship between foreign direct investment inflows (FDI) and growth indicators of developing economies has attracted researchers from all over the world to explore the relationship. A FDI inflow not only bring capital, but new techniques, updated technical know-how and makes such a transformation in developing economies that the process of development accelerates and many under-developed economies are now moved up-to the level of developing economies and that time is not far that these developing economies will transform into developed economies.

No country can ignore the importance of FDI inflows but everything has both positive and negative aspects. Where FDI inflows are bringing many positive changes, the complete package of FDI also contains some negative aspects. the main purpose of this study is to cover all sides of FDI inflows (though there are many limitations in the form of different answers due to difference in empirical research techniques, difference in data: panel or time series and most importantly difference in variables or sectors). Although there is a huge literature on impacts of FDI on growth indicators, and relationship with other variables, still much work needs to be done. Therefore this paper discusses existing literature which throws light on relationship between FDI inflows and TFP. The further observe the effects of FDI inflows, the appendix of paper makes a comparison of three most emerging economies; China, India and Pakistan.

2. Foreign Direct Investment (FDI)

There are different concepts and definitions of FDI but the most widely used by Economists, is the one given by [1]

“Direct investment is a category of cross-border investment made by a resident in one economy (the direct investor) with the objective of establishing a lasting interest in an enterprise (the direct investment enterprise) that is resident in an economy other than that of the direct investor. The motivation of the direct investor is a strategic long-term relationship with the direct investment enterprise to ensure a significant degree of influence by the direct investor in the management of the direct investment enterprise. “(Page 80)

Based on the above definition, FDI can be beneficial for host country or it can cause harm to host country’s economy, the exact effect depends on the adjustment of two opposing forces.

 Lately, however, the exceptional advantages of FDI and mainly the kinds of motivations offered to foreign firms in practice, have become questionable. Moving on with this debate, the empirical evidence for FDI generating positive spillovers for host countries is showing ambiguous results at both the micro and macro levels.

According to [2], there is weak evidence that FDI generates positive spillovers for host economies. Empirical research thus provides little support for the idea that promoting FDI is warranted on welfare grounds. However, there is a need for more research related to effects of FDI on recipient country as higher taxes result in decrease in FDI. In addition, the behavior of Multinational Enterprises (MNEs) tend to behave differently based on location where investment is made.

[3] Used panel dataset covering 72 developed and developing countries in order to analyze the relationship between FDI inflows and economic growth. The study performs both a cross-sectional   OLS analysis as well as a dynamic panel data analysis using GMM. The paper concludes that there is no robust link running from inward FDI to host country economic growth.

On the other hand, [4] carried out an empirical analysis using cross country data between 1975 and 1995. They divided their model in two data sets; first data set consists of 20 OECD countries and 51 non-OECD countries whereas second data set includes 20 OECD countries and 20 on-OECD countries. The main emphasis of their study is based upon examining relationship among FDI, financial market and economic growth. Their findings suggest that countries with better financial system attract more FDI, however the impact of FDI on economic growth is ambiguous.

The secretary general of United Nations [5] summarized the importance of FDI to the developing economies as follows ‘‘With the enormous potential to create jobs, raise productivity, enhance exports and transfer technology, foreign direct investment is a vital factor in the long-term economic development of the developing countries’’ (United Nations, 2003 page iii).

 Different Economists and policy makers give diverse conclusions but most of them have consensus that the policies and environment of host country play the vital role in determining the impact of FDI.

3. Total Factor Productivity (TFP)

According to [6],

 “TFP is the part of output that is not attributed to the use of capital and labor. In other words, TFP represents the efficiency with which the production inputs are utilized. The importance of TFP in economic growth is indisputable.” (Page 11)

Another important statement given by author (quoting author’s words)

“TFP reflects not just technology but also organizational innovations, improvements in the allocation of capital and labor, and returns to scale, for example. Technology and innovation constitute a big portion of TFP and FDI is said to positively contribute to such innovations by bringing in new technology, which results in knowledge spillovers and durable increase in the productivity.”

Regarding determinants of TFP, there is an ongoing debate where different researchers have pointed out different determinants but as in the case of FDI, TFP is also affected by a country’s policy, environment, availability of educational facilities etc.

 According to [7], the factors which are important for increasing TFP include macroeconomic policy, human capital, institutional and socioeconomic factors.

[8] Empirically examined the relationship between FDI and TFP using a sample of 33 developing countries covering the time period of 1980-2005. After applying panel Cointegration techniques, the results suggested that FDI has a positive effect on TFP over a long run time period and there exists a bi-directional causation between FDI and TFP.

 Measurement of TFP is a separate and complex exercise. According [9]

 “By linking the TFP growth rate to innovation, endogenous growth models shed light on the determinants of TFP growth. R&D subsidies and an abundance of skilled labor reduce the marginal cost of conducting R&D and increase the rate of innovation development and therefore, the TFP growth rate. Increases in the size of markets increase the innovators’ revenues, leading to more innovation and higher TFP growth.” (Page 2)

[10] States

“From the outset, it is assumed that capital intensity is one of the main determinants of TFP and that policies that encourage investment also have a positive impact on TFP growth. Both a medium- and long-term view of determinants are provided. “(Page 1)

BASED ON THESE VIEWS TFP CAN BE MEASRED USING CAPITAL FORMATION AS A PROXY VARIABLE

In case of developing countries, it is argued that as FDI inflows bring technology transfer, it has spillover effects over labor productivity and “A simple labor” is transformed into “human resource or human capital”.

Because of new technology and technical know-how in host country, the labor learns new and better ways to perform assigned work more properly and in a better way

According to [11]

Contact with firms of a higher level of efficiency enables the relatively backward ones to improve not only by copying or imitating but also by inducing them to “try harder,” as in the well-known Avis motto. As in many fields of human endeavor, the visible example of a high standard can inspire those with a lower level of achievement to perform better”.    The Relationship and Methods

[12] States that FDI inflows can help increase productivity in developing countries, there has been little research that examines directly the linkage between FDI and productivity at the macro level. The author examined the link between FDI and TFP in fourteen Sub-Saharan economies by applying Granger Causality test (4). The results found limited evidence that FDI inflows contribute to higher TFP.

According to [13], the role of FDI for developing countries is well known but the relationship between FDI and TFP is furnished with mix results. Major reason pointed out by the author is the presence of endogeneity factor and the inability of recipient country to absorber new technology. The study used panel data for 49 countries over the time period 1974-2008 and found that increased FDI stock leads to higher productivity growth.

 There is another interesting aspect of relationship between FDI and TFP which has been explored by [14]. They performed cross- country regressions on a sample of 69 developing countries and their results suggested that FDI contributes more to growth and domestic investment. Moreover they found that there is a strong complementary effect of FDI and human capital. Their empirical results imply that FDI is more productive than domestic investment only when the host country has a minimum threshold stock of human capital.

    [15] Used panel data approach to study the effects of FDI on TFP in a sample of 5 BRIC countries and Turkey. Results suggest that FDI has a negative impact on TFP for these countries.

     In case of developing countries, an important factor which gives them extra benefit is that they do not need to introduce a new technology. As [16] states

“Fortunately, the developing countries need not recreate the technology that has already been created in advanced countries since they can benefit from technological diffusion. The most effective and less costly channel through which technology transfers from developed to developing countries is via Foreign Direct investment (FDI)”. (Page 1)

  The study constructs an alternative analytical model, within the externalities type endogenous growth theory, in which technological spillovers from FDI generates long run growth of the host economy, through its positive effect on its TFP and tested the model using panel data from 22 Sub-Saharan African countries. The empirical results obtained from both static and dynamic panel models conform to the theoretical model according to which FDI has positive effect on TFP in the long-run and negative effect in the short run.

 Although it seems that FDI has a positive impact on TFP, but there are so many different answers.

A comprehensive study by [17] points out the reasons for getting different results. According to the author, there are three types of studies

  • CASE STUDIES which are specific for a country and their result cannot be generalized although they are very informative and use many variables.
  • Industry level studies using CROSS-SECTIONAL DATA. Author states:

“Their disadvantage is the difficulty in establishing the direction of causality. It is possible that this positive association is caused by the fact that multinationals tend to locate in high-productivity industries rather than by genuine productivity spillovers. The positive correlation may also be a result of FDI inflows forcing less productive domestic firms to exit and/or of multinationals increasing their share of host country market, both of which would raise the average productivity in the industry.” (Page 605)

  • Third type of study is based on firm level PANEL DATA, which is based on examining the correlation between the productivity of domestic firms and presence of foreign investment.

The study uses firm level Panel data set from Lithuania. The empirical results find that productivity benefits are associated partially with FDI.

 [18] Used time series data for eight East Asian countries and found a positive relation between FDI and total Factor productivity.

[19], conducted a research on Taiwan’s manufacturing sector. They used firm-level data and found that FDI has a positive spillover effect on productivity and suggested that developing economies should adopt encouraging policies for attracting FDI, in this way there would be more spillover effects in the form of technology and knowledge.

 [20] Conducted a study on Pakistan using time series data covering the sample from 1960 to 2003 and found a positive relation between FDI and TFP.

The impact of FDI on TFP has largely been explored by many researchers but the empirical literature shows mixed results. [21], discuss this problem in much detail. In their research, they have used both time series and panel data analysis for a sample of OECD and non-OECD countries in the period 1970-90.

Their study makes a comparison between Time Series and Panel data models for examining the impact of FDI on TFP in host countries.

“Empirical work on cross-country and time series growth has been directed at dealing with two basic problems; namely, the lack of unconditional convergence of growth rates across countries and high estimates of the elasticity of output with respect to capital stocks. Although conventional neo-classical growth in the Solovian tradition predicts that the elasticity of output with respect to capital should be equal to the capital share in output, cross-country estimates point to a much higher value. High capital elasticities can nevertheless be explained on the grounds of simultaneity and omitted variable biases.”(Page 133)

According to their empirical findings, time series analysis shows that there is a positive relation between FDI and TFC via knowledge transfer. In case of Panel data analysis, FDI appears to have a positive impact on TFP in the OECD Panel where as in the non-OECD Panel there seems to be a negative relation between FDI and TFP.

“This is because it is well known that, in the case of cross-country and times-series estimations, the correlation between the error term and the regressors in standard growth accounting-based, time-series production function estimations leads to simultaneity and omitted variables biases.” (Page143)

[22] Conducted an empirical study by using firm level data of Venezuela and found that more foreign presence in the same industry would decrease the productivity of domestic firms. This happens because multinationals crowd out the latter by market stealing effect.

According to [23] and [24], the problem of endogeniety between FDI and growth has not been taken into consideration in most of the cross sectional studies, moreover the time-invariant factor has been ignored.

[24] Used panel data for 84 countries over the period of 1970-99 and found a significant endogenous relation between FDI, economic growth and productivity in case of developing countries. There is not enough evidence of positive relation between FDI and TFP because very few studies have used TFP as a dependent variable.

[25] Empirically investigated the effect of FDI on TFP by using a large sample of 90 countries in 1970-2000 and found a positive relation whereas the absorptive capacities do not affect the impact of FDI.

According to [26] and [27], FDI is favorable for growth only if host country has strong financial institutions but later they found that countries with well-developed financial institutions achieve significantly from FDI via TFP improvements. Both studies are based on cross country models.

  [28] used panel data approach to examine the relation between FDI and TFP  in a sample of 16 OECD countries and found a positive relation between two variables and the reason mentioned by the author is that this positive relation is may be due to the possibility that FDI is a channel trough which technologies are transferred internationally.

According [29],

“Most empirical studies conclude that FDI contributes to both factor productivity and income growth in host countries, beyond what domestic investment normally would trigger. It is more difficult, however, to assess the magnitude of this impact, not least because large FDI inflows to developing countries often concur with unusually high growth rates triggered by unrelated factors.” (Page 9)

Based upon above studies, results are summarized in a table.

RELATIONSHIP RESULTS AND EMPIRCAL APPROACH

 

RESEARCHER/

RESERCHERS

 

DATA TYPE

 

COUNTRIES AND

TIME PERIOD

 

RESUULTS/

CONCLUSIONS

 

Herzer (2010)

 

Panel Cointegration Techniques

 

33 Developing countries

(1980-2005)

 

Positive and Long-Run relationship between FDI and TFP

 

Thiam (2007)

 

Time Series

 

14 Sub-Saharan

(1970-2004)

 

Limited evidence that FDI inflows result in higher TFP

 

Baltabaev (2013)

 

Panel data

 

49 countries

(1974-2008)

Increased in FDI higher stock leads to productivity growth.
 

Borensztein et el (1998)

 

Cross- country regressions

 

69 developing countries

(1970-2011)

Positive relation but FDI is more productive than domestic investment only when the host country has a minimum threshold stock of human capital.

 

 

Filiz (2014)

 

Panel data

Sample of 5 countries BRIC countries and Turkey

(1990-2012)

FDI has a negative impact on TFP for BRIC.
 

Senbeta (2008)

 

Panel data

 

22 Sub-Saharan African countries

(1970-2000)

FDI inflow has negative short-term effects and positive long-run effects on total factor productivity.
 

Javorick (2004)

 

Firm level Panel data set

 

Lithuania

( 1996–2000)

Partial association between FDI inflows and TFP
 

Pratoomchat (2012)

 

Time Series

Eight East Asian countries

Rolling regression technique for 20

Periods, starting from 1980-1990 to 1999-2009.

 

Positive relation between FDI inflows and TFP.

 

Lin and Chuang (1999)

 

Firm level Panel data set

 

Taiwan

( census data 1991)

FDI has a positive spillover effect on productivity
 

Khan (2006)

 

Time Series

 

Pakistan

(1960-2003)

positive relation between FDI and TFP
 

Luiz and de Mello (1999)

 

Both Time series and Panel data

 

OECD and non-OECD countries

(1970-1990)

Time series analysis shows that there is a positive relation between FDI and TFC via knowledge transfer. In case of Panel data analysis, FDI appears to have a positive impact on TFP in the OECD Panel where as in the non-OECD Panel there seems to be a negative relation between FDI and TFP.

 

 

Aitken and Harrison (1999)

 

Firm level Panel data

 

Venezuela

(1976-1989)

More foreign presence in the same industry decreases the productivity of domestic firms.
 

Li and Liu (2005)

 

Panel data

 

84 countries

(1970-1999)

Significant endogenous relation between FDI and TFP
 

Woo (2009)

 

Both cross-sectional and Time series

 

90 countries

(1970-2000)

Positive relation whereas the absorptive capacities do not affect the impact of FDI
 

Alfaro et al. (2004, 2009)

 

Cross-country

regression

 

For (2004)

20 OECD countries and 51 non-OECD countries.

(1975-1995)

For (2009)

62 countries

(1975–1995)

FDI is favorable for growth only if host country has strong financial institutions but later they found that countries with well-developed financial institutions achieve significantly from FDI via TFP improvements
 

Pessoa (2005)

 

Panel data

 

16 OECD

( 1985-2002)

 

Positive relation between FDI and TFP

Source: Author(s) All results in this table are based on literature discussed above

4. Effects of FDI

No doubt, FDI inflows have helped developing countries in reducing dual gaps: saving-investment gap and export-imports gap. Moreover, all economists have consensus that FDI brings a complete package including technology, technical know-how, growth, and increase in productivity and many others.

According to [29],

Given the appropriate host-country policies and a basic level of development, a preponderance of studies shows that FDI triggers technology spillovers, assists human capital formation, contributes to international trade integration, helps create a more competitive business environment and enhances enterprise development. All of these contribute to higher economic growth, which is the most potent tool for alleviating poverty in developing countries. Moreover, beyond the strictly economic benefits, FDI may help improve environmental and social conditions in the host country by, for example, transferring “cleaner” technologies and leading to more socially responsible corporate policies.”   (Page 5)

Coming towards negative aspect, the role of Multinationals is the most heated topic. In most developing countries, it has been observed that they are harmful to domestic firms as MNEs with their lower marginal costs increase production relative to their domestic competitor, when imperfectly competitive firms of the host country face fixed costs of production. In this environment, foreign firms that produce for the domestic market draw demand from local firms, causing them to reduce the production. The productivity of local firms falls as their fixed costs are spread over a smaller market which forces them to back up their average cost curves.

According to [22], when the productivity decrease from this demand effect is large enough, total domestic productivity can diminish even if the MNE transfers technology or its firm-specific asset to local firms.

Regarding wages and productivity, there can be both positive and negative spillovers. According to [30], if foreign firms hire the best workers, domestic firms will be left with relatively lower quality workers and wage spillover could be negative. On the other hand, productivity spillovers could be negative if foreign firms take a major share of market and domestic firms have limited share in market, leading to reduction in productivity.

Although there are many different viewpoints about the impact of FDI inflows on host country and it is hard to arrive at a single conclusion. Whether FDI inflows are beneficial or harmful, the outcome depends upon liberalization policies, environment, infrastructure, availability of productive resources etc. Moreover, all countries do not benefit at the same level, the above mentioned factors vary from country to country, more favorable circumstances will attract more FDI inflows and as a result more are the gains and vice versa. In addition, the impact of FDI depends on the behavior of multinationals in host countries.

5. Conclusion

This study tries to find out whether FDI inflows affect TFP and for this purpose the existing literature has been studied in detail. The impact of FDI on TFP cannot be ignored whether it is positive, negative or has partial results. There are so many different answers and it may be due to difference in techniques, variables, methodology and the right question being tested by researcher. Same data can give different results depending on Panel, cross-country or time-series technique.

In my view, Panel Data provides best results if sample size is large (e.g. analysis of many countries, many firms or a large number of variables of interest). Cross- country provides accurate results when a comparative study is being carried out. If only one country is being analyzed, then data availability becomes an issue. Moreover in case of single country analysis, the number of variables cannot be large enough to make a proper Panel Data study.

No matter, whatever the technique is, it cannot be ignored that FDI is beneficial for developing countries as they are in need of capital, technology and innovations. The spillover effects are clearly observed in case of increase in productivity whether it is factor productivity or productivity of sectors; industry, agriculture or services.

Negative or harmful effects are a part of package; they can be in the form of inequality, monopoly power of multinationals, hidden conditionalities or interference in culture or traditional values.

The gains for every country depends on net effect of these two opposing factors. More liberal an economy is, more FDI it attracts and more benefits are gained from FDI but FDI does increase growth, resources and productivity and this fact has not been ignored by researches.

6.  References

[1]OECD (2008), “FDI flows and stocks”, in OECD Factbook 2008: Economic, Environment and Social Statistics, OECD Publishing.

 [2]Hanson, G. H. (2001). Should countries promote foreign direct investment?

[3] Carkovic, M. V., & Levine, R. (2002). “Does foreign direct investment accelerate economic growth?” University of Minnesota Department of Finance Working Paper.

[4]Alfaro, et al. (2004). “FDI and economic growth: the role of local financial markets”, Journal of international economics64(1), 89-112.

[5]Unctad, M. United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (2003). World Investment report: FDI Policies for Development: National and International Perspectives, New York and Geneva: United Nations

[6]Ilboudo, P.S. (2014). “Foreign Direct Investment and Total Factor Productivity in the Mining Sector: the Case of Chile” (2014). Economics Honors Papers. Paper 18

[7]Loko, B., & Diouf, M. A. (2009). Revisiting the Determinants of Productivity Growth: What’s New? IMF Working Papers, 1-29.

[8]Herzer, D. (2010). The long-run relationship between outward FDI and total factor productivity: evidence for developing countries (No. 199). Ibero-America Institute for Economic Research.

[9]Comin, D. (2006). “Total Factor Productivity” New York University and NBER.

[10]Isaksson, A. (2007). Determinants of total factor productivity: A literature review. Research and Statistics Branch, UNIDO.

[11]Findlay, R.  (1978), “Relative Backwardness, Direct Foreign Investment and the Transfer of Technology: A Simple Dynamic Model,” Quarterly Journal of Economics, Vol. 92(1), pp.1-16.

[12]Thiam, N.H. (2007), “Foreign Direct Investment and Productivity: Evidence from Sub-Saharan Africa”, Research and Statistics Branch UNIDO.

[13]Baltabaev, B. (2013). FDI and Total Factor Productivity Growth: New Macro Evidence (No. 27-13). Monash University, Department of Economics.

[14]Borensztein et al. (1998), “How does Foreign Direct Investment Affect Economic Growth”, Journal of International Economics, Vol. 45, pp. 115–135.

[15]Filiz, K. (2014), “FDI and total factor productivity relations: An Empirical Analysis for BRIC and Turkey”,

[16]Senbeta, S. (2008), “The nexus between FDI and Total Factor Productivity Growth in Sub Saharan Africa”, From MPRA http://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/31067/

[17]Javorcik, B. S. (2004). “Does foreign direct investment increase the productivity of domestic firms? In search of spillovers through backward linkages”. American economic review, Vol 94(3): pp. 605-627.

[18]Pratoomchat, P. (2012), “Foreign Direct Investment and Total Productivity Growth in East Asia: Which one happened first?” Department of Economics, University of Utah,

From https://www.academia.edu/5203672/Foreign_Direct_Investment_and_Total_Factor_Productivity_in_East_Asia_Which_one_happened_first

[19]Chuang, Y.C. and Lin, C.M., (1999), “Foreign Direct Investment, R&D and Spillover Efficiency: Evidence from Taiwan’s Manufacturing Firms”, Journal of Development Studies, Vol. 35(4), pp. 117-137.

[20]Khan (2006), “Macro Determinants of Total Factor Productivity in Pakistan,” SBP Research Bulletn, Vol, 2(2): pp. 383-401.

 [21]De Mello, L. R. (1999), “Foreign Direct Investment-led growth: Evidence from Time Series and Panel Data” Oxford economic papers, Vol, 51(1): pp. 133-151.

[22]Aitken, B. J., & Harrison, A. E. (1999), “Do Domestic Firms Benefit from    Direct Foreign Investment? Evidence from Venezuela”, American Economic Review, Vol, 39(3): pp. 605-618.

[23]Choe, J. I. (2003), “Do Foreign Direct Investment and Gross Domestic Investment Promote Economic Growth?” Review of Development Economics, Vol, 7(1): pp. 44-57.

[24]Li, X., & Liu, X. (2005), “Foreign Direct Investment and Economic Growth: An Increasingly Endogenous Relationship”, World development, Vol, 33(3): pp. 393-407.

[25]Woo, J. (2009). Productivity growth and technological diffusion through foreign direct investment. Economic Inquiry, 47(2), 226-248.

[26]Alfaro, et al. (2004). “FDI and economic growth: the role of local financial markets”, Journal of international economics64(1), 89-112

[27]Pessoa, A. (2005), “Foreign Direct Investment and Total Factor Productivity in OECD Countries: Evidence from Aggregate Data. Faculdade de Economia, Universidade do Porto.

[28][29]Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development. (2002), “Foreign Direct Investment For Development: Maximizing Benefits, Minimizing Costs”, OECD Publishing.

[30]Aitken, B. J., & Harrison, A. E. (1999), “Do Domestic Firms Benefit from    Direct Foreign Investment? Evidence from Venezuela”, American Economic Review, Vol, 39(3): pp. 605-618.

[31]Lipsey, R.E and F. Sjöholm (2004), “FDI and Wage Spillovers in Indonesian Manufacturing”, Review of World Economics, Vol. 140 (2), pp. 321-332.

Read More

TOURISM AND THE ECONOMY CASE STUDY: TAMIL NADU

TOURISM AND THE ECONOMY CASE STUDY: TAMIL NADU

 

SAUMYA

B.A. Social Sciences, Tata Institute of Social Sciences, Hyderabad

Abstract

This article deals with the pattern of tourism seen in the state of Tamil Nadu and its implications on the economy

Introduction

Tourism is amongst the world’s fastest growing industries, which generated US$7.2 trillion that accounts for 9.8% of the global GDP and 284 million jobs (1 in 11 jobs) for the global economy in the year 2014. (World Travel and Tourism Council , 2015).

India also stands 12th in the World ranking of Relative importance of Travel & Tourism’s total contribution to GDP. (In absolute terms)

Taking the Case of India, according to the World Travel & Tourism Council, the 6.2% of Total Investment made in the country towards Travel and Tourism (as of 2014) resulted in the Tourism sector contribution to 6.7% of the country’s GDP in that annum. [It is forecast to rise by 7.3% p.a. to almost 7.6% of GDP in 2025].

Within India, 25.6 % of Domestic tourist visits and 20.6% of foreign tourist visits are made in the state of Tamil Nadu. (Ministry of Tourism, Govt. of India, 2015). The eleventh largest state in India by area and the seventh most populous state, Tamil Nadu is home to many natural resources, grand Hindu Temples of Dravidian architecture, hill stations, beach resorts, multi-religious pilgrimage sites and eight UNESCO World Heritage Sites which accounts for why it has the largest share in the country’s tourism sector. (Places; Tamil Nadu, 2013)

 

Positive Impact of Tourism on the Economy

  1. Tourism generates employment: As of 2014, Travel & Tourism directly supported 23,024,000 jobs in India (5.5% of total employment).
  2. Tourism is an important source of foreign exchange earnings in India. This has favorable impact on the balance of payment of the country. The tourism industry in India generated about US$100 billion in 2008 and that is expected to increase to US$275.5 billion by 2018 at a 9.4% annual growth rate.
  3. It helps in not only quantitative economic growth, but also egalitarian economic development in rural/underdeveloped regional areas that attract tourism. Tourism also helps generate livelihood for women (who are actively engaged in the tourism sector)
  4. Developing Infrastructure: Tourism tends to encourage the development of multiple-use of infrastructure that benefits the host community, including various means of transportation, health care facilities, and sports centers
  5. Tourism in turn leads to preservation of many historically and naturally significant places by giving those places the title of being ‘Heritage Sites’. (Venkatesh & Raj, 2016)

Various forms of Tourism

  1. Medical tourism also known as health tourism has emerged as one of the important segments of the tourism industry. The term has been coined by travel agencies and the mass media to describe the rapidly-growing practice of travelling across international borders to for healthcare. Travelers typically seek services such as elective procedures as well as complex specialised surgeries such as joint replacement (knee/hip), cardiac, dental, and cosmetic surgeries. Psychiatry, alternative treatments, and convalescent care are also available.
  2. Adventure tourism Travel for the aim of exploration or travel to remote, exotic and possibly hostile areas is known as adventure tourism. With tourists looking for different options, adventure tourism is recording healthy growth. Adventure tourism refers to performance of acts, which require significant efforts and some degree of risk or physical danger. The activities include mountaineering, trekking, bungee jumping, mountain biking, river rafting, and rock climbing. India with its diverse topography and climate offers tremendous scope for adventure tourism.
  3. Heritage tourism Heritage tourism is defined as “travel undertaken to explore and experience places, activities, and artefacts that authentically represent the stories and people of the past and present”. It is oriented toward cultural heritage of the tourist location. It involves visiting historical or industrial sites, religious travel or pilgrimages. India is well known for its rich heritage and ancient culture.
  4. Eco tourism Eco tourism, also known as ecological tourism, is travel to natural areas to appreciate the cultural and natural history of the environment, while not disturbing the integrity of the ecosystem and creating economic opportunities that make conservation and protection of natural resources advantageous to local people. Ecotourism also minimizes wastage and the environmental impact through sensitized tourists.
  5. Rural tourism: Rural tourism encourages rural life, art, culture and heritage of rural locations, benefitting the local community economically and socially as well as enabling interaction between the tourists and locals for a more enriching tourism experience. India’s rural, geographical and cultural diversity enables to offer a wide range of tourism products and experiences. Wildlife tourism Wildlife tourism, one of the fastest segments of tourism, involves travel to different locations to experience wild life in natural settings. India is endowed with various forms of flora and fauna and it has numerous species of birds, mammals, reptiles, amphibians and plants and animals.
  6. MICE tourism MICE (Meetings, Incentives, Conferences and Exhibitions) tourism is also one of the fastest growing in the global tourism industry. It largely caters to business travellers, mostly corporate.

 

The hill stations, waterfalls and large coastal stretch will be given wide publicity and developed for eco-tourism and adventure tourism. Whereas on the other hand eco-tourism projects can combine conservation of natural and cultural sites with economic and recreational benefits. Talk about why pilgrimage destinations and other (MICE/ business) destinations have a negative growth rate.

Observation

We shall now study the tourism in Tamil Nadu over a period of 8 years, from 2006-2014 and try to find patterns with which the form of tourism prevalent in a particular district impacts the tourism of that district.

Analysis

The district-wise data analysis reflects that the Chennai, Mamallapuram, Udhagamandalam, Madhurai, Trichy, Kodaikanal, Kanyakumari, Thanjavur and Coimbatore were noticed as some of the best choice of tourist destinations (centres) of tourists in the year 2006. (Chauhan, 2010)

Chennai, we see had a share of 19% in the total tourist (foreign and domestic both) arrival of the country in 2006, which has significantly dropped to 11% in 2014. Although the gross number of tourist that arrive has increased in Chennai, the preference of tourists who come to Tamil Nadu has significantly shifted away from Chennai.
Chennai attracts most of its tourism due to its metropolitan significance and has an added advantage of having a strong pilgrimage tourism. The MICE tourism, i.e., business tourism is also highly prevalent in Chennai due to its highly advanced and upcoming IT sector. In recent years, Chennai has also seen a burst of Medical Tourism by attracting about 40% of the country’s medical tourists and more than six lakh tourists visit the state every year, according to a study by Confederation of Indian Industries (CII). However, the drop in the share of total tourists has dropped most significantly here because of one most substantial reasons. The substantial reason being the Global Recession of 2008-09. In India, Tamil Nadu is the state with the highest number of tourists per year and out of that, Chennai is the city with the highest number of foreign tourists. When global recession struck, countries like US, UK and France from where the majority of the tourists come (Chauhan, 2010), suffered the brunt of it, this could have cause the foreign tourism in Chennai to significantly reduce and hence, causing Chennai to lose its share in the tourism of Tamil Nadu.

Same is the case with Madurai, Tiruvannamalai (main attraction- Mahabalipuram), Rameshwaram and the Nilgiris, all of these districts have seen a decline in more than 2% share of the total tourist arrival in Tamil Nadu. The common factor amongst all these districts is that the major form of tourism in these areas are Heritage and pilgrimage tourism. Madurai is the city of temples, Mahabalipuram is known for its historical significance and Rameshwaram is considered to be as sacred as Varanasi and is a bustling pilgrimage centre. In recent years, the significance of pilgrimage and heritage sites has relatively declined as a greater-than-before share of tourists are now visiting districts of Tamil Nadu that had lesser than 1% share Tamil Nadu Tourism, such as Cuddalore and Dharmapuri.

These lesser-known places hold a great potential for expanding Tamil Nadu’s tourism. As can be derived from the graphs above, maximum in the share of tourist arrivals has been seen in districts which had 0.15%-4.43% share in the total tourist arrival in the state.  Many places such as Thiruparappu in Kanyakumari,Yelagiri in Vellore, Tharamangalam in Salem, Sirumalai in Dindigul and Hoegnakkal in Dharmapuri have great potential of being future destinations of prospective tourism as these include unexploited tourist places, beaches, historical monuments and places, temples, eco-tourism areas, wild-life and bird sanctuaries, Botanical and Horticultural gardens, zoological and national parks and water bodies.

There has been a decline in the share of tourism in the Nilgiris and Dindigul (Kodaikanal). This could be due to over-exploitation of the natural resources of the district over the past many decades. This serves as an example of why it is so important to conserve our tourist destinations- Be it the scenic, historic or religious sites. Eco tourism is highly advantageous in an economy like ours because in order to maintain the inflow of tourism over a long period of time without destroying our resources, taking a step towards sustainable tourism is vital.

Eco tourism blankets over adventure, rural, leisure, heritage tourism and ensures sustenance of resources It helps the Hill Stations, Waterfalls, Forests, Bird Sanctuaries and beaches retain their natural beauty. An example being the Ban of plastic in the Nilgiris, which has helped preserve its natural splendour and saved it from getting polluted in the long run. Main ingredient of eco-tourism is in the adaptation of tourists to the local environment rather than the other way. The tourists will respect local customs, flora and fauna by trying to become a part of it rather than being visitors.

Eco tourism is further administered by giving culturally heritage sited the tag of “UNESCO world heritage sites”, almost 42 tourist spots are promoted and protected, while the income earned from them help in their preservation. This also helps by generating income and helping the lives of the local people living in and around these sites.

Conclusion

In conclusion, it can be added that by studying the pattern of change in the share of Tourism in various districts of Tamil Nadu, it has come to light that the cities which were the popular choice as tourist destinations have become less and less-popular choice- This pattern has in turn shown a decline in the percentage of pilgrimage tourism and business tourism.

As the rural tourism in lesser-known places has grown in share, it is vital to ensure development of eco-tourism in these areas in order to maintain the growth of tourism in Tamil Nadu. This can be achieved by providing basic infrastructure and amenities for the tourists so that the increase in the inflow of tourists helps in harnessing the potential of the place in such a way that it helps in the development of the region and boosts the local economy in such a way that the local residents are offered a livelihood and security.

References

Chauhan, G. (2010). ANALYZING TOURISM POTENTIAL OF TAMIL NADU. Journal of Environmental Research And Development, 5(2).

Ministry of Tourism, Govt. of India. (2015). India Tourism Statistics at a Glance 2014. Govt. of India.

Nielsen India Pvt. Ltd. (2015). Tourism Survey for Tamil Nadu (Jan-December 2014). Ministry of Tourism, Govt of India.

Places; Tamil Nadu. (2013). Retrieved from Eco Tourism: http://www.ecotourism.co.in/tamilnadu.html

Rath, N., Singh, N., & Lopes, S. A. (n.d.). IMPACT OF TOURISM ON INDIAN ECONOMY. Tactful Management Research Journal.

Venkatesh, M., & Raj, S. J. (2016, January). IMPACT OF TOURISM IN INDIA. International Journal of Scientific Engineering and Applied Science, II.

World Travel and Tourism Council . (2015). ECONOMIC IMPACT 2015, INDIA. London: World Travel and Tourism Council .

 

 

Read More

Publish your Original Articles with Pen2Print® Journals

Call for Papers for 2017

Call for Original Research Papers March 2017 edition

Call for Papers for 2017

Call for Papers for 2017

Volume 4 | Issue 3

International Journal of Research (IJR)

http://internationaljournalofresearch.com/ 

ISSN JOURNALS | Indexed JOURNALS |

HIGH IMPACT FACTOR   | HIGH Index Copernicus Values

 

Online publication within 3 days

SUBMISSION GUIDELINE:

Research papers prepared in English in MS word template not exceeding 5 -15 pages can be submitted

Alternatively, research papers can be submitted electronically as attachment to the following e-mail id:   editor@edupediapublications.com

Why Pen2Print® Journals

ü  2900+Articles

ü  9000+Subscriptions

ü  5 Years of Publication

ü  6000+ Authors

ü  500+ Review Board Members

ü  60+ Issue Published

ü  10+ Abstracting and Indexing DBs

ü  Authors from 30+ Countries

ü  Fast Review and Publish

ü  Online Publication within 3 days

 

Send Papers to editor@edupediapublications.com

Read More

The Dynamic of Representation: The Narrative Pattern in William Faulkner’s Short Stories

The Dynamic of Representation: The Narrative Pattern in William Faulkner’s Short Stories

The Dynamic of Representation: The Narrative Pattern in William Faulkner’s Short Stories

The Dynamic of Representation: The Narrative Pattern in William Faulkner’s Short Stories

Mrs. N. Kanmani

Assistant Professor

Department of English

University Engineering College

Anna University, Kanchipuram

&

Dr. Amutha Pandian

Principal

Government Arts College for Men (Autonomous), Nandanam, Chennai


Abstract:

Faulkner’s achievement as a fiction writer is massive. Faulkner’s novels have too often been read not as fiction but as realistic accounts, with the notion that they represent only slightly distorted pictures of southern rural and small-town life.

Carothers is of the opinion that Faulkner’s stories and novels have been praised and condemned for their lack of realism or of historical or sociological accuracy, and they have been praised and condemned for their realism, their sociological and historical authenticity (1984). Either way, it is made clear that their realism, social and historical authenticity is the criteria that have weighed in the criticism of Faulkner.  This paper analyses a short story in the light of a unifying narrative pattern Encounter, Termination and Initiation Proper.

Introduction:

In several of Faulkner’s short stories one can find that the circumstances or environment make a woman repress her natural drive for love and sex.  This has a relation to the narrative complex in question.  Sally. R. Page’s (1973:94-5) remark that Faulkner presents heroines whose idealistic drive for complete fulfilment in physical love results in the isolation and death may be true of “Elly”, in which the protagonist is driven to perverse sexuality by her grandmother’s repressive control.

The title character of the story “Elly” is a self-obsessed young woman, who, obviously, is a victim of self-pity and over-indulges in sexuality which is a wild defiance of her grandmother’s stern prohibitions.  Elly engages in sexual play nightly but consistently refuses the final act which would make her lose her virginity.  She returns home hating the acts but exulting in her revenge her grandmother:

She thinks I did and she will tell that I did, yet I am still virgin.  She drove me to it, and then prevented me at the last moment (Collected stories: 211).

But things have totally gone against her when Elly met Paul in the shrubbery near her home.  She surrenders herself to Paul de Montigny physically:

That night Elly quitted the veranda for the first time.  She and Paul were in a close clump of shrubbery on the lawn; in the wild close dark for that instant Elly was lost, her blood aloud with desperation and exultation and vindication too, talking inside her at the very brink of surrender loud as a voice:  I wish she were here to see!  I wish she were here to see! (Collected Stories: 211).

But Elly’s coming into contact with Paul, a mullato young man, is the point of encounter that leads to greater consequences in the narrative and the life of Elly herself.  First of all, this encounter terminates her virginity and secondly her romances with other young men.  This intimate relationship with Paul paves the way for certain complications.  Elly desires to marry Paul so that she can bring the final outrage to the tradition her grandmother represents.  So she begs Paul to marry her.  But Paul refuses politely and firmly:

That afternoon she met Paul downtown, ‘Was everything all right last night?  He said.  ‘Why, what’ is it?  Did they-‘

No Paul, marry me, they were in the rear of        the drugstore, partially concealed by the prescription counter, though anyone might appear behind it at any moment.  She leaned against him, her face wan, tense, and her painted mouth like a savage scar upon it.  Marry me   or it will be too late, Paul.

I don’t marry them, Paul said.  Here pull your self together (Collected Stories: 212).

Elly tries to persuade Paul but he sticks to his decision strongly perhaps because he is aware of the fact that Elly uses him sexually just as he is willing to use her and also perhaps because he is aware of the racial and personal consequences of a black marrying a white:

‘Yes.  All right.  I’ve stopped.  You won’t, then?  I tell you it will be too late’.  ‘Hell no.  I don’t marry them.  I tell you’.  ‘All right.  Then its good-bye.  Forever’.

‘That’s O.K. by me too.  If that’s how you feel.  If I ever see you again, you know what it will mean.  But no marrying.  And I’ll see next time that we don’t have any audience’ (Collected Stories: 213).

A week later Elly is engaged to Philip, an assistant in a bank, whom she had known from childhood.  In the mean while, the grandmother has departed to visit her son in Mills city.  And Paul and Elly leave for Mills city to bring back the grandmother.  The grandmother is infuriated when she finds Paul and Elly together again.

The complication reaches its height when Elly tries to kill her grandmother though Paul is not for that.  In Mills city too, Elly begs Paul to marry her.  But he refuses.  Elly is made to realise that Paul will never marry her.  This revelation makes her pull the steering wheel of the car in which she, Paul, and the grandmother are riding, causing it to careen over the edge of the road.  Elly is thrown free of the wreck but the other two are killed in that homicidal impulsive act.

Here, the self-realisation of Elly that Paul will not marry her and that her protest cannot triumph over convention could be considered the point of initiation.  But initiation seems to be altogether out of the question because violence that leads to murder cannot be considered a meaningful beginning and the impulse to outrage is not a door to a fresh life.  As Alice Hall Petry remarks:

“Elly” is an extraordinarily complex story.  Its       two female characters are intended simultaneously to be         flesh-and-blood individuals, doubles, manifestations of id and superego, and symbols of the Old South and the New; and this complexity increases geometrically as these four roles shift and interact constantly, thereby mutually enriching and illuminating one another.  Clearly this story…..

…. So, too “Elly” uses the tragedy of murder to exhort the New South to be receptive to the best of the Old.  Despite its tragic ending, therefore “Elly” is ultimately a hopeful story; as the romantic glow of the   Old South dims considerably in its pages.  So too Faulkner’s insistence upon doubleness holds out at least the possibility of hope for the New (Cited in Minrose Gwin. The Feminine and Faulkner 1990:231-32).

 

Thus the story “Elly” present its protagonist’s initiation as existential isolation or seclusion. Though the protagonists in these stories reach a state of seclusion, the way by which they reach it conveys the reasons for their fall.

Elly, a young-belle meets her fall through her wild and aggressive acts, from the beginning itself. Elly is in conflict with her grandmother and her Southern tradition, both of which severely inhibits Elly’s normal sexual initiation.

Elly cannot proscribe her grandmother. Elly wants to be free from her grandmother’s repressive control (the wild acts are in defiance against Ailanthia), but she finds she cannot be free. Later, Elly tries to marry Paul, but he is not for marrying Elly. Against Elly’s intention, she is engaged to Philip. In all these acts Elly meets with nothing but frustration. This frustration leads her to commit the homicidal act of killing Paul and her grandmother. Elly’s violative acts are spring from her frustration and her lack of courage to act.

Hence, her frustration and violation cannot be deemed the point of initiation. There had been encounter and termination, but initiation does not follow. Further investigations in detail would give the readers a deep insight.

Works Cited

  1. Brooks, Cleanth, William Faulkner: The Yoknapatawpha Country. – New Haven, Connecticut: Yale Univ. Press, 1963. Print.
  2. Brooks, Cleanth, William Faulkner: the Yoknapatawpha Country. New Haven: Yale Univ. Press, 1976. Print.
  3. Faulkner, William. Collected Short Stories. Random House: New York. 1950. Print.
  4. Ferguson, James. William Faulkner’s Short Stories. University of Tennessee Press: Tennessee. 1991. Print.
  5. Frohock, Wilbur Merril. The Novel of Violence in America. London: Barker, 1959. Print.
  6. Gwin, Minrose, C. The Feminine and Faulkner: Reading (Beyond) Sexual Difference. Tennessee. University of Tennessee Press. 1990. Print.
  7. Malin, Irving. William Faulkner: an Interpretation. – Stanford, California: Stanford University Press. 1957. Print.
  8. Nordanberg, Thomas. Cataclysm as Catalyst: The Theme of War in William Faulkner’s Fiction. – Uppsala: University Press. 1983. Print.
  9. O’Connor, William Van. The Tangled Fire of William Faulkner. – Minneapolis: Minnesota University Press. 1954.
  10. Vickery, Olga W. The Novels of William Faulkner: a Critical Interpretation. Baton Rouge, La: Louisiana State Univ. Press, 1964. Print.
  11. Waggoner, Hyatt Howe, William Faulkner: from Jefferson to the World. Lexington: University of Kentucky Press. 1959. Print.

 

Read More

Anthropological Elements in Zora Neale Hurston’s Novels

Zora Neale Hurston (1901-1960). American Novelist

  1. B .Moses Chandrasekaran

Research Scholar

PG and Research Department of English

Sudharsan College of Arts and Science

Pudukkottai 622104

&

Dr. G. Sathurappasamy

Assistant Professor

PG and Research Department of English

  1. H. The Rajah’s College (Autonomous)

Pudukkottai 622001

 

Abstract:

Zora Neale Hurston (1891-1960) is one of 20th-century America’s foremost fiction and folklore writers. Though she was criticized by some of her contemporaries, including Richard Wright and Ralph Ellison, her works are now frequently taught in literature courses and are widely admired for their style and substance. She deals extremely with anthropological elements and sentiments in her novels. This paper explores three of her novels in the perspective selected in the title.

Introduction

This paper analyses such the anthropological elements as people culture, origin and society portrayed in the novels of Zora Neale Hurston. This paper explains the African-American people’s origin, culture and society. It also portrays the culture of the people and how the women were treated in their society. This paper addresses female issues in society such as the socialization of g`irls and women to define ‘self’ in the relation to the ‘others’. It will be primarily about modern women with particular dreams, delights, despairs and how these women relate to one another in the name of love.

The Major focus is on how women were treated both in black and white society. The struggles they undergone by physically, psychologically and how they finally fulfil their goal of identity. The emergence of female identity and creativity and barrier to their development and the challenges that these women face are also explored.

To explain these issues the primary sources chosen for this paper are “Their Eyes were Watching God, Seraph on the Sewanee” and Jonah’s Gourd Vine” by Zora Neale Hurston.

Zora Neale Hurston was one of the prominent figures in Harlem Renaissance. She was the only women writer in that period who had become famous as a black. She always focuses in the gender politics, secrets, language and identity. The tyrannical social model and family expectation, familial devotion, romantic love, economic, emotional insecurity, self-fulfilment and lack of recognition are the recurring themes in her works.

The most significant and prominent novel is Their Eyes were Watching God. This novel focuses on Janie the protagonist. It narrates about a journey in which the title character, Janie Crawford searches for independence, self-fulfilment and love. Janie’s quest for identity is challenged by the norms of her society, and she defies her grandmother, lovers, friends and community in order to escape the imprisonment of their self-degrading ideologies. This novel portrays the atmosphere of Eatonville and Florida. As a single woman when she returns to Eatonville after burying her third husband Tea Cake who made her to learn new thing and developed her knowledge which was restricted to women in their society. This novel tells about the struggles faced by Janie in her development of her psyche. This novel portrays the atmosphere of Eatonville and Florida.

Seraph on the Sewanee is another novel which also takes place around Florida. This is the only novel the protagonist is a white women. This novel takes place in Sawley town present on the river bank of Sewanee. This novel also tells about the development of the protagonist Arvay in her marriage life. Arvay was all of twenty-one, and according to local custom, should have been married at least five years ago. When the story begins, Arvay is upset with her sister because she takes the man that Arvay wants to marry. Because she feels that the life that she wanted to live is taken away from her, she tries to go into seclusion and ends up marrying a man that she persuaded to love. There are also scenes in the story when Arvay wanted to leave Jim but she couldn’t because Jim’s influence over her was so great. His force is similar to the force that black women had with whites and oftentimes their husbands.

Jonah’s Gourd Vine is the first novel of Zora Neale Hurston. It is her indirect product as anthropologist research work. This work also represents her life in Eatonville and her family life. Lucy Potts, the character modelled on Hurston’s real life mother Lucy, is presented as a tragic figure who stayed loyal to her husband through all of his adulterous affairs and abusive behaviour. In this novel Lucy has an even narrower life space in Alabama. She is locked into the cycle of reproduction that literally ties her to bed. Her physical enslavement as a breeder is also symbolically reified. She is always presented in bed in her marriage both in Alabama and in Eatonville, Florida, too, where she reaches a middle class status on the side of her husband. The metaphor of the bed marks disability and social marginalization that really becomes powerful in contrast with the promiscuous behaviour of John, who is seldom presented in the home, but whose figure is connected to superior physical power and agency.

On her death bed, Lucy says that she has been to sorrow’s kitchen and licked out all the pots. This novel also revolves around the Eatonville society and the culture of the black people. This book also focuses on women, violence, and testimony in the African American society. The author asserts the violently enforced confinement and powerlessness of African American women during 1880s in her novel “Jonah’s Gourd Vine.”

In these three novels, Zora Neale Hurston discusses the culture and society of the black and white people lives around Florida. She had travelled many places and done many research as an anthropologist. So as an anthropologist her writing also filled with the same things such as culture and society around the South Florida.

As a feminine writer all her writings were focused on the women life in their culture, society and around South Florida. How they were crushed in the name of culture and society and how they finally full fill their rights as a women. Most female character in her writing will try to attain self-fulfilment in their life. Being an anthropologist she combines the culture and society which restrict women development in the social status shown in her works. Hurston’s women are often positioned in the private–most prominently: kitchens, bedrooms, back porches, and back yards; and rarely in the public–where they are marginalized and alienated. These women are thus ascribed to inflexible places, where, under the male gaze, they become immobile. However, even if Hurston’s women appear in a seemingly free context–outside the home and masculine social space– and acquire a nomadic identity, their stance remains intelligible in the function of transparent space. Her works display a deep interest in the anthropology and feminism.

Thus Zora Neale Hurston novels reflect a strong anthropology and feminism and she examines the lives in and around South Florida. Her research is about their culture and structure of the society and how they see women and how they treat them. All her female character in her novels seeks for affection, love and self-fulfilment.

Thus this paper analysed Zora Neale Hurston’s novels from a cultural, society, feminist literary perspective, examining the women experience and perception of the world, female identity and social constraints on their development.

Works Cited

Woodson, Jacqueline. Show Way. New York: G.P. Putman’s Sons, 2005.

Housten, Julian. New Boy. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2005.

Giovanni, N. Rosa. New York: Henry Holt and Company, 2005.

Freedman, R. The Voice that Challenged a Nation: Marian Anderson and the Struggle for Equal Rights. New York: Clarion Books, 2004.

Draper, Sharon A. Copper Sun. New York: Atheneum, 2006.

Hemenway, Robert. Zora Neale Hurston: A Literary Biography.

Hurston, Zora Neale. Dust Tracks on a Road.

Walker, Alice (ed.). I Love Myself…

Read More

Call for Papers March 2017

Registered Trademark of Edupedia Publications Pvt Ltd

Registered Trademark of Edupedia Publications Pvt Ltd

Registered Trademark of Edupedia Publications Pvt Ltd

IJR contains research papers which deal with the contemporary issues of international relevance in the education theory, methodology and practice of mankind. It welcomes Scientists, Researchers and Scholars to submit their work in the form of Case Study, Research Papers, Review Articles or Book Review which can add value for various stakeholders of the society and help them to learn about your work.

  • Open Access Journal
  • Quality Research Work
  • Widely Indexed Everywhere
  • Automated Citation
  • Descriptive Details of Papers
  • Area of concentration: Multidisciplinary
  • Frequency of publishing: Monthly
  • Mode of publishing: online (e-journal)
  • Language of publication: English
  • Platform to share knowledge in front of the world
  • Encouraging research work
  • Platform to showcase your research

 

The IJR Is Accepting Manuscripts For Its Coming Issues To Be Publish March 2017. The IJR Invites Authors To Submit Manuscripts Reporting Original Scientific (Technical Or Non Technical) Review, Systematic Reviews, Or Educational Innovations For Publication For The Coming Issues That Will Be Released In March 2017. Types Of Manuscripts Suitable For IJR Include: Scientific (Technical Or Non Technical) Research, Technological  Research Educational Innovation, Brief Report, Reviews On Teaching In Keeping With High Quality Scholarship, We Seek Manuscripts That Meet High Standards For Clarity, Validity, And Generalizability. All Manuscripts Submitted Will Undergo Evaluation By Independent Peer Reviewers. Authors Should Consult the Instructions for Authors for IJR for Advice on Manuscript Preparation and Submission to

https://internationaljournalofresearch.com/call-for-paper/

If any difficulty you can also submit to editor@edupediapublications.com

Regards,

IJR

Edupedia Publications Pvt Ltd

https://edupediapublications.org

Contact Us 09958037887 or 09557022047

Read More